Bar Hebraeus’ Chronography Concerning the Taking of Constantinople by the Franks from the Greeks

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And in the year six hundred of the ARABS (A.D. 1203), which is the year fifteen hundred and fifteen of the GREEKS (A.D. 1204), in the month of NISAN (APRIL), the FRANKS took CONSTANTINOPLE from the GREEKS, and they brought their kingdom to an end from that year. For the king of the GREEKS took the sister of the king of FRANCE to wife, and she bore him a son.

The king of the GREEKS had a brother, and this man rebelled against the king, and they blinded his eyes, and put him to death in prison. Then the son of the murdered man fled to his uncle the king of FRANCE, and he was filled with indignation, and he collected troops and came and encamped against CONSTANTINOPLE. And because the citizens were not pleased with the action of the tyrant against his brother, they set fire to the city. And the fighting men who should have been on the walls were occupied [elsewhere], and the FRANKS scaled the walls and entered the city, and the tyrant fled, And the FRANKS set that little boy on the throne of the kingdom, being only a figure and a name, for the whole command was theirs. And they began to oppress the citizens with heavy taxes, and they looted the treasuries of the churches, and carried off the crosses, and the curtains (i.e. coverings) of the Books of the Gospels, and the gold and silver which was on the eikons.

Now when the citizens saw that they were being plundered mercilessly by the FRANKS, they rushed in on the young man, the son of the GREEK king, and killed him. And they also expelled the FRANKS from the city, and shut the gates in their faces. And the FRANKS remained outside, and continued to fight. And the war was prolonged and those inside the city became weak, and they sent and asked help from RUKN AD-DIN, the lord of ICONIUM, and he was unable to help them. Then the Frankish merchants who were dwelling in CONSTANTINOPLE, now there were [416] about thirty thousand of them, but on account of the great size of the city they were not conspicuous therein, set fire to the city twice, and burned down about one-quarter of it. And they also opened the gates and went outside, and they drew their swords and killed a very great many of the GREEKS. And the FRANKS also attacked many of those who had taken refuge in the great church of HAGIA SOPHIA. And the Patriarch, and the chief priests, and the elders went out to meet them carrying crosses and Books of the Gospels, and they cast themselves down before them, and cried out and entreated them on behalf of the remnant of the people who were there. And the FRANKS treated them with contempt, and they killed priests and people alike, and looted the church.

Now the FRANKS had three chiefs. The first was the Duke of the BUNDIKAYE (1) in whose ships and vessels all the troops of the FRANKS had come; now he was a blind old man. And another was the chief of the FRANSISAYE (FRENCH), whose name was MARKIS (MARQUIS), and there was another whose name was GONDOFRI. And they cast lots as to whom the kingdom of CONSTANTINOPLE should belong. And the lot went forth (i.e. fell on) GONDOFRI (BOUDOUIN of FLANDERS?), and he reigned over it. And the BUNDIKAYE ruled over the islands of CRETE and RHODES, and the other islands. And they gave to MARKIS the country westwards from the way of the sea which passeth over to PONTUS, that is LAODICEA and NICEA with PHILADELPHIA, &c. But the GREEKS resisted, and they would not make terms with the FRANKS, and a certain Patriarch, a GREEK whose name was LASHKARi (LASKARIS?), reigned over them.

And at the time when NUR AD-DIN ARSLAN SHAH, the lord of MAWSIL, and the son of his uncle KUTB AD-DIN MAHAMAD, the son of ZANGI, the lord of SINJAR, were on loving terms with each other, MALIK ‘ADIL cast dissension among them. Through this NUR AD-DIN encamped against NISIBIS, which belonged to the son of his uncle, and he made war on it, and he well nigh took it.

Then the report reached him from MAWSIL that MUTAFAR AD-DIN KUKBARI (KUKBURI), the son of ZAYN AD-DIN ‘ALI KUJEK, the lord of ‘ARBIL, had attacked NINEVEH, and spoiled it and burnt its crops. Therefore NUR AD-DIN left [417] NISIBIS and came to BALADH. And when he heard that MUTAFAR AD-DIN had left and gone to ‘ARBIL, he himself went to TALL ‘AFAR and took it by fighting (i.e. by assault). Then MALIK ASHRAF, the son of ‘ADIL, who was then in HARRAN, came to RAS ‘AINA. And he made an agreement with MUTAFAR AD-DIN, the lord of ‘ARBIL, and with the lord of AMID and of the fortress of KIPA, and with the lord of GAZARTA, and with the lord of DARA, that they must not permit NUR AD-DIN to take any portion of the territory of the lord of SINJAR. And they all came to NISIBIS, and from there they came to BETH ‘ARBHAYE. And NUR AD-DIN went to KAPHAR ZAMAR, and from there to BUSHAZZAH. And when they encamped that they might rest themselves, for they were exhausted, the troops of ASHRAF and those who were with him rode on, and they met NUR AD-DIN in battle. And the party of NUR AD-DIN was broken and utterly defeated. And NUR AD-DIN fled and, together with four souls, escaped to MAWSIL. And the followers of ASHRAF rushed into the territory of MAWSIL, and they spoiled it and set it on fire; in the city of BALADH especially they wrought great destruction.

It is said that a woman was boiling some food, and when she heard the spoiling [going on] she took out two bracelets from her dress, and buried [them] in the fire and fled. Then one of the horsemen went into the house and wanted something to eat. And he found nothing in the house except an egg, and he took it and came to the fire to cook it, and when he stirred up the fire he found the bracelets therein. And this was a wonderful incident. And the soldiers continued to lay waste the country for many days, and meanwhile ambassadors were going and coming. And NUR AD-DIN gave back TALL ‘AFAR to the son of his uncles and there was peace, and afterwards the soldiers were disbanded.

And in the year during which the FRANKS took CONSTANTINOPLE they became very powerful, and they went forth to the country of PHOENICIA, and spoiled the country as far as the JORDAN, and made great slaughter among the ARABS. And they came to HAMATH, and the lord thereof, NASIR AD-DIN, the son of TAJI AD-DIN, the son of SHAHINSHAH, the son of AYUB, went out and met them in battle, and he was utterly broken and fled to HAMATH. And the Arab citizens went forth to fight with the FRANKS, and they were all killed. Then MALIK ‘ADIL sent to them and gave them NASRATH, and the crops of all the districts which were on the land between were divided between the FRANKS and the ARABS, and [418] there was peace. And after a little other FRANKS went forth to the country of EGYPT, and they carried off great spoil and departed.

And in the year Sultan RUKN AD-DIN, the lord of MELITENE and ICONIUM, took the city of ANCYRA from his brother, after he had warred against it for years, for it was very strong. And he brought out from it his brother and the two sons which he had, and he gave to them a fortress in the Outer Marches. And whilst they were going there he sent an army against them as if they had been highway robbers and killed them. Five days after his brother and his sons were killed, a disease of the colon attacked him and he died quickly. And there rose up after him a young son which he had whose name was KELEJ ‘ARSLAN. Concerning this Sultan RUKN AD-DIN it is said that he was very astute, and methodical (or, orderly) in his actions. He inclined to the opinions (or, teaching) of the foreign philosophers, and though he observed the form, he did not publish it openly.

And in the year a violent earthquake also took place, and it destroyed the wall of TYRE and other places in EGYPT, and in PALESTINE, and in BETH NAHRIN and MAWSIL, and also in the islands of CYPRUS and SICILY.

And in the year six hundred and one of the ARABS (A.D. 1204) dissension fell among the nobles of BETH RHOMAYE. And one of the Amirs of ‘IUG, a great country of the TURKOMANS which was on the border of the GREEKS, sent and had brought to him GHAYATH AD-DIN KAI KESRU, who was a fugitive to the GREEKS. And many troops were gathered together to him and they went and encamped against ICONIUM. And the troops that were in ICONIUM sallied forth and met them in battle, and they broke the ‘IUGAYE and put them to flight. Then GHAYATH AD-DIN not knowing what to do, or where to go, took refuge in a very small town which was near ICONIUM, and the name of which was ‘ABGARM’. Then when the sons of ‘AKSARA heard [of this] they were sorry, and they drove away their governor and called on the name of GHAYATH AD-DIN KAI KESRU. And the men of ICONIUM were jealous of the men of ‘AKSARA, and they also seized their nobles and cried out, ‘May Sultan GHAYATH AD-DIN KAI KESRU live!’ And they sent and brought him to ICONIUM. And he took the boy KELEJ ‘ARSLAN, the son of his brother, and shut him up in prison, and those who were with him. And in a short time all the countries were in subjection to him. (419] And there came to him from EDESSA KAISAR SHAH, his brother, who had fled from his brother RUKN AD-DIN when he took MELITENE away from him. And he did not receive GHAYATH AD-DIN in his presence, but he gave him much gold and sent him again to EDESSA. And when the Sultan GHAYATH AD-DIN went to CAESAREA, MALIK ‘AFDAL, the son of SALAH AD-DIN, the lord of SAMOSATA, and also NETAM AD-DIN, the lord of the fortress of ZAID, came to him, and they were in subjection to him, and he increased greatly.

And in the year NASIR AD-DIN MAHMUD, son of MAHAMAD, the son of KARA ‘ARSLAN, the lord of AMID, went to MALIK ‘ASHRAF, the son of ‘ADIL, and he asked him to go with him, and take for him the fortress of ZAID, according to his promise. And when ‘ASHRAF had collected the armies of SYRIA, and of MAWSIL, and SINAR, and GAZARTA, he attacked the fortress of ZAID. And they captured the town and began to make war on the Citadel. Then the lord of the Citadel of ZAID sent to Sultan GHAYATH AD-DIN and asked for help. Then the Sultan sent to him six thousand horsemen with MALIK ‘AFDAL, the lord of SAMOSATA. And when they arrived at MELITENE, ‘ASHRAF and the lord of ‘AMID heard [of it], and they turned aside from KHARTABIRT, and went and encamped on the Lake of SAMANIN, in which are two fortresses, one belonging to the lord of ‘AMID, and the other to the lord of the Citadel of ZAID. And they made war on that of the lord of the fortress, and they stationed guards in it. And when the army of the Sultan came to KHARTABIRT, the lord of ‘AMID marched towards ‘AMID, and the army of the Sultan returned to BETH RHOMAYE.

And in this year which is the year fifteen hundred and sixteen of the GREEKS (A.D. 1205), the ‘IBIRAYE went forth to the country of ‘ADHORBIJAN, and they made a great slaughter and took very much spoil; and from there they came to the country of KHALAT, and there they wrought great destruction. And from there they came to the country of ‘ARGISH, and they looted and burned, and they went and encamped against the fortress of BETH KHALAT and ‘ARZAN AR-RUM. Then the lord of KHALAT went to BAR KELEJ ‘ARSLAN, the lord of ‘ARZAN AL-RUM, and took an army therefrom. And they came and joined battle with the ‘IBIRAYE, and ZACHARI the Little, the captain of the host of IBIRIS, was killed, and the ‘IBlRAYE retreated and went to their own country.

And in the year a certain woman in BAGHDAD gave birth to a child who had [420] two heads, and four feet and four hands, and he died the same day. And also in BAGHDAD two blind ARABS went to another blind man in the night in one of the mosques and killed him, because they thought thatzuze (i.e. money) would be found with him. And when the day broke they were afraid, and they went out to flee to MAWSIL, And a certain soldier (speculator) who was travelling on another business met them, and he said by way of a joke, ‘These blind men killed that blind man, for only a blind man would kill a blind man’. Then one of the two blind men who heard the words of the soldier sat down on the ground and said, ‘By God, it was not I, but this man who killed him’. And the other blind man said, ‘Nay, it was thou thyself, thou didst kill him’. And the two of them were arrested and were carried to the governor, and they confessed that one of them held him and the other suffocated him with a bed-cushion. And both of them were killed.

And in the year six hundred and two of the ARABS (A.D. 1205) a race of the KURDS who were in the mountains of MADAI (MEDIA), and who are called TIRAHAYE, came down from the mountains, and wrought great destruction in those countries. And troops of the PERSIANS were gathered together, and they met them in battle and many of them were killed. Now these mountaineers had not entered the Faith of the Muslims, but they had adopted the primitive paganism [of their country] and Magianism. When a Muslim fell into their hands they put him to death with cruel tortures. When a daughter was born to one of them he stood by the door of his house and cried out, ‘Who will betroth himself to this?’ And if a man agreed [the father] let [her] live, and if no one would, he killed [her]. For this reason there are very few women among them, and for this reason one woman becomes the wife of all the sons of a house. And when one of them is engaged with her, he leaves his sandal at the door, so that when another man seeth it he will not go to her until his neighbour cometh out, and then he goeth in. And as for the child, the oldest among them is called its father.

And in the year six hundred and three of the ARABS (A.D. 1206) the ‘IBIRAYE came again to the country of KHALAT, and they plundered, and burned, and killed, and departed. And GHAYATH AD-DIN KAI KESRU took ‘ANTALYA (SATALYA?), a city on the sea-coast, on the third day of the eighth month. He had sent an army against it before this year. And the GREEKS who were therein sent to CYPRUS, which is near to ANTALYA, and brought FRANKS [421] as it were to help them. Then the Sultan removed his troops to a distance from the city, and hid them in ambush in the mountains, and they seized every one who came out. And having remained in a state of tribulation for some time, they sent to the Sultan and surrendered the city to him. And the TURKS and the GREEKS joined together in a war with the FRANKS, and the Sultan took its fortress, and made prisoners of the FRANKS who were in it, and also captured KHUNAS.

And in this year MAHAMAD, the son of BUKHTAMAR, the governor of KHALAT, became powerful, and he kil1ed his son-in-law HAZARDINARI, who had kil1ed his father. And because he was young he began to live in a riotous manner, and the people of KHALAT hated him. Also a certain Amir, one of the slaves of SHAHARMAN, whose name was BALABAN, rebelled against him in MINAZGERD. Then certain of the men of KHALAT sent to NASIR AD-DIN ‘ARTUK, the son of ‘ILJAZI, the son of ‘ALBI, the son of TEMURTAsH, the son of ‘ILJAZI, the son of ‘ARTUK, the lord of MARDIN, and said unto him, ‘This son of the uncle of thy father hath no head to live. Come therefore, that we may surrender KHALAT to thee.’ And when the lord of MARDIN went, and there were with him troops of the TURKS and the MA’DAYE, they made an agreement, for those famished people saw those who were with him, and they feared that they would plunder them, and they made ready for war.

Then BALABAN sent to the lord of MARDIN and said unto him, ‘The men of KHALAT are horrified at the MA’DAYE who are with thee. Therefore remove thyself from KHALAT, and I will conduct your business.’ And when he did [not] turn aside and withdraw, BALABAN sent threatening messages to the lord of MARDIN, saying that if he did not withdraw to his own country [he would attack him]. And because those who were with him were few, he was afraid, and he left and departed; and he found that his country had been pillaged by MALIK ‘ASHRAF. Now ‘ASHRAF sat down in DUNAISER, and he collected much wealth therefrom, and he left and went to HARRAN. Then BALABAN collected an army and came against KHALAT, and he was unable to take it by assault. But when he multiplied promises of benefits for the people of KHALAT, and swore to them oaths of a very strong character, saying that he would do no harm to the least among them, they surrendered to him. And when he went in he shut up the son of BUKHTAMAR in one of the fortreses, and then he became exceedingly powerful (or, strong). And as MALIK ‘AWHAD NAJM AD-DIN ‘AYUB, the son of ‘ADIL, had already taken the fortress of [422] MUSH and its city, he went to encamp against KHALAT; and BALABAN went out and shut the fortified passes against him, and destroyed many of those who were with him; and NAJM AD-DIN, the son of ‘ADIL, together with a few men and the wounded, escaped to MAIPERKAT.

And in the year the ‘IBIRAYE took KARS, a city of the dominion of KHALAT (MAT?), after many years, during which they had harassed it with wars and besiegement; and they cut off from it the [supplies] of food.

And in the year six hundred and four of the ARABS (A.D. 1207) MALIK ‘AWHAD sent to his father MALIK ‘ADIL and asked for help from him to take KHALAT. And MALIK ‘ASHRAF was sent to him with a numerous army, and they came into the neighbourhood of KHALAT. And BALADAN went out and engaged them in battle; he was not able to continue the fight, and he fled before them and went into KHLAT. And he sent an ambassador to MUJITH AD-DIN, the son of KELEJ ‘ARSLAN, the lord of ‘ARZAN AR-RUM, and called him to his help. And he came in person, and BALADAN went forth to him, and the two of them met in battle MALIK ‘AWHAD and his brother, and the broke them and put them to flight.

s And they went and encamped against MUSH, and they were very nearly taking it when the son of KELEJ ‘ARSLAN deceived BALADAN and killed him, on the pretence that he himself would rule over KHALAT. And when he went against KHALAT the inhabitants of the city shut their gates in his face. And he went from it to MINAZGERD (MALAZGERD), and those who were inside it also did the same thing. And in despair he left and went to his own country. And the people of KHALAT sent to MALIK ‘AWHAD and brought him, and to him they surrendered the city. And because it did not please the governors of the ARABS who were in the neighbourhood that the son of ‘ADIL should rule, for they were afraid of his father, they sent [bands of men] continually to plunder the country of KHALAT, and especially ‘IBIRAYA.

And also some of the Amirs of KHALAT rebelled against ‘AWHAD, and they took the fortress of WAN [VAN] (now there was no stronger fortress in that country), and they made themselves masters of ‘ARGISH also. And after many tribulations ‘AWHAD was able to take WAN from them, having sent and brought ‘ASHRAF, his brother. And it was evil in the sight of the men of KHALAT that they had surrendered the place to a member of the house of ‘ADIL. Therefore, when ‘AWHAD set out and went to MINAZGERD to govern it as was fitting, [423] the heads of bands of the men of KHALAT, who in the language of the country are called ‘MANGDABHKIR’, leaped upon the partisans of ‘AWHAD, and expelled them from the city, and started a war against the fortress. And when ‘AWHAD heard [this], he came and encamped against KHALAT with troops of BETH NAHRIN. And a dispute arose among the citizens, and ‘AWHAD suppressed it, and he killed a great many of the people, and many of them he took captive and sent to MAIPERKAT. And the opposition of the young chiefs of the tribes (or, bands) who were in the habit of setting up and deposing governors at their own will was crushed.

And in the year died Sultan GHAYATH AD-DIN KAI KESRU, and his son ‘IZZ AD-DIN KAI KAUS reigned. And he seized his brother ‘ALA AD-DIN KAI KUBAD, and he sent him and shut him up in the fortress of MASARA, which is below the Monastery of MAR ‘AHRON, of the blessed mountain which is by the side of MELITENE.

And in the year the FRANKS sallied forth from TRIPOLI and enamped against EMESA, and they laid waste the country thereof, and the lord ‘ASAD AD-DIN SHIRKUH, the son of MAHAMAD, the son of SHIRKUH the Great, had not the power to smite them. And the CYPRIANS also captured many ships from the ARABS, whom they took prisoners. And when ‘ADIL heard [this] he set out from EGYPT with troops, and the FRANKS were hampered.

And in the year died ‘ALA AD-DIN, the son of KARA SENKUR, the lord of MARAGHA, and his young son rose up after him; and after a short time he too died. And NUSRATH AD-DIN ‘ABU BAKRR the son of PAHLWAN, the lord of TABRIZ, came, and he became master of MARAGHA and all the domain thereof, with the exception of the fortress of RAWANDIZ, in which the eunuch who was the administrator of the boy who had died had rebelled.

And in the year six hundred and five of the ARABS (A.D. 1208) a great number of people of the ‘IBIRAYE set out and came to the country of KHALAT. And they invaded the city of ‘ARGISH, and they captured it and looted it; and they killed the aged folk and the young children thereof, and they made the women, and the sons, and the daughters prisoners. And they destroyed the place absolutely, and left it a devastated ruin and shorn bare. And NAJM AD-DIN ‘AWHAD was in KHALAT, and he was unable to sally out and engage them in battle because of their great number, and he could not trust the men of KHALAT because of the slaughterings which he had carried out among them, and [he feared that] when he went out they would rebel and surrender the city to the ‘IBIRAYE.

And in the year a violent earthquake took place [424] in NISABHUR, and all the inhabitants rushed out into the plain and remained there for several days until it subsided, and then they went in again. And there was an earthquake also in KHORASAN, but not as violent as that of NISABHUR.

And in the year six hundred and six of the ARABS (A.D. 1209) there was amity between MALIK ‘ADIL and NUR AD-DIN ‘ARSLAN SHAH, the lord of MAWSIL. And NUR AD-DIN gave his daughter to one of the sons of ‘ADIL, and they agreed together to transfer SINJAR from KUTB AD-DIN, its lord, to ‘ADIL, and to take the ISLAND OF KARDU from the son of SENJAR SHAH, its lord, and to make it belong to NUR AD-DIN. And ‘ADIL made ready and came and took HABURA and NISIBIS, which belonged to the lord of SINJAR. And when NUR AD-DIN heard [this] he was sorry, and he became like a man whose wine hath disagreed with him. And he thought carefully, and he knew that if he took SINJAR and GAZARTA not only that he would not give him GAZARTA, but that he would snatch MAWSIL from him also. And that when they had taken counsel with his chief men (or, councillors) he would be blamed by all of them because he had not disclosed to them the secret before he conspired with ‘ADIL. And they would say unto him, ‘Now there is no other course for thee but to stand with him in what thou hast promised him. And if thou dost not [do this] he will make a cause concerning thee, and he will come against thee, as against a man who hath passed over (i.e. disregarded) [his] oaths.’ And whilst he was being tossed about in this sea [of doubt], and was pretending that he was getting ready an army to send to the help of ‘ADIL, there came to him an ambassador by night from MUTAFAR AD-DIN KUKBURI, the lord of ARBELA, and he promised to collect his troops and to come to him, and [then] they would join forces, and not allow the hand (i.e. power) of ‘ADIL to enter these countries. And NUR AD-DIN rejoiced with a great joy, and he sent oaths about this course of action.

And the ambassador departed in the night and informed MUTAFAR AD-DIN, and he collected troops and without delay came and pitched his camp outside MAWSIL. And he sent an ambassador to the Khalifah [telling him] to send and chide ‘ADIL for his covetousness. And he sent an ambassador to MALIK TAHIR, the son of SALAH AD-DIN, the lord of ALEPPO, and to Sultan ‘IZZ AD-DIN KAI KAOS, and they all promised help. Moreover, those who were with ‘ADIL were not fighting strenuously against SINJAR. And ‘ASAD AD-DIN, the lord of EMESA, especially was sending provisions [425] and sheep openly into the city. And whilst the lord of SINJAR was making ready to surrender the city , he received a compensation, and he waxed strong and powerful. And the ambassador of the Khalifah came to ‘ADIL and reprimanded him; and there was peace between them, and [it was understood] that there should remain to him the places which he had taken, that is to say HABURA and NISIBIS. And he left and departed to SYRIA.

At the time when MUTAFAR AD-DIN, the lord of ‘ARBIL, was in MAWSIL he gave his two daughters to the two sons of NUR AD-DIN, ‘IZZ AD-DIN MAS’UD and ‘EMAD AD-DIN ZANGI. Now by this MUTAFAR helped greatly those who were of the house of ‘ADIL. But because the lord of SINJAR had sent his son to him and entreated him to supplicate ‘ADIL on his behalf, so that he might leave him SINJAR, and MUTAFAR AD-DIN having had sent confidently to ‘ADIL, because he thought that if he asked for the half of his dominion he would not send back his petition empty, and ‘ADIL having paid no heed to his supplication, MUTAFAR was offended, with him, and he joined with NUR AD-DIN in the great hatred which existed between them.

And in this year died FAKR AD-DIN RAZI, aged three-and-sixty lunar years. He was a very learned man and a great debater (or, commentator) of the ARABS. And by him and by the great number of books which he composed the ARABS throughout the world have been enlightened, and they are to this day. For I would compare this man to ORIGEN, through whose books the doctors of the Church have become rich and illustrious, and they have turned round and called him a ‘heretic’. Thus it is also with the ARABS, who call this man an ‘infidel’, and an adherent to Aristotelian doctrine (1).

And in the year of the ARABS six hundred and seven (A.D. 1210), MAHAMAD, the son of HASAN, the head of the ISHMAELITES, died. This man also, like his father, travelled on the path of the philosophers, and he overturned and cast down many of the foundations of the Faith of the ARABS. In his days he killed many of the governors who would not pay him tribute by means of his followers whom he used to send to leap upon holders of power. And killing them they were killed. And thus through the fulfilling of the wicked will of their iniquitous lord and tyrant they surrendered their own souls to [426] death. And having completed forty-and-six years in his tyranny he came to an end, and there rose up after him JALAL AD-DIN ‘HUSAIN. Now in the beginning of his rule he began by pretending to agree with the Faith of the Muslims, and he fasted and prayed. And he sent and informed the Khalifah of BAGHDAD, and Sultan MAHAMAD KHAWARAZM SHAH and other Arab governors, that he had turned his face from the evil ways of his father, and was travelling on the way of ISLAM. And believing him, they rejoiced in him and honoured him with many gifts and rich presents.

And in the year, too, died NUR AD-ADIN ‘ARSLAN SHAH, the son of MAS’UD, the son of MAWDUD, the son of ZANGI, the son of ‘AK5ENKUR, the lord of MAWSIL. He was a just man, and a mighty man, who was feared by the sons of his kingdom (i.e. courtiers) and also by the other kings who were his contemporaries. And when the time of his death drew nigh, he made his nobles swear on behalf of MALIK KAHIR ‘IZZ AD-DIN MAS’UD, his elder son. And to his younger son, that is ‘EMAD AD-DIN ZANGI, he gave two fortresses, that of ‘AKR of HAMIDIYAH, and that of SHOSH, and their territories. And he appointed as administrator for his two sons his slave BADR AD-DIN LULU, a subtle and astute man whose race was worthy of sovereignty. For when his sickness increased the physicians told him that he must go down and bathe in the spring of the holy Monastery of MAR ZINA, which was on the banks of the TIGRIS. And when BADR AD-DIN took him down and he bathed, he was not benefited, because his sickness was of death [i.e. fatal]. And as BADR-AD-DIN was taking him up in a little ship to MAWSIL, he died before they arrived. And there were only two slaves with them, and BADR AD-DIN and those two men carried him and brought him by night into the palace, without any other person knowing it And when the day broke BADR AD-DIN carried on the necessary business throughout that day, and towards the ninth hour he revealed his (the king’s) death. And in the night he cleared out his grave in that cemetery which he had constructed for himself opposite to his palace. And his eldest son MALIK KAHIR rose up after him, and BADR AD-DIN swayed the sceptre of the political administration of the kingdom.

And in the years six hundred and eight and six hundred and nine of the ARABS (A.D. 1211, 1212), we find nothing [to relate].

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(1) Bedjan’s note reads: ‘Holy Church gathereth into her treasuries the chosen wheat which is in the books of Origen and other writers, and she collecteth the tares that are therein to burn them, and thus no man is harmed by them.’