The Discovery of an Ancient Mesopotamian Theory of Music : Anne Draffkorn Kilmer

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The Discovery of an Ancient Mesopotamian Theory of Music
Author(s): Anne Draffkorn Kilmer
Source: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 115, No. 2 (Apr. 22, 1971), pp. 131-149
Published by: American Philosophical Society
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Associate Professorof Assyriology,Universityof California,Berkeley (Read November15, 1968; subsequentlyrevised)

SOME NINE years ago, the late Benno Lands-
bergerof Chicago’s Oriental Institutedelivered
to the AmericanPhilosophicalSociety a paper
dealing with the “Classes and Class Conscious-
nessofBabylonianSociety.”l Thatstudy,filled
Herculeanlaborson a corpusofcuneiformtablets
and fragmentsknownas the lexical texts. This
bodyofSumerianand Akkadianmaterial,rang-
ingin timefromthethirdmillenniumto thevery
last vestiges of cuneiformwritingin the first music advanced by Curt Sachs7 and Francis centuryB.C., is a richsourceforthecuneiformist Galpin.8
because it reflectsthe surprisinglywide range of As far as the Assyriologicalworld was con- thescholarlypursuitsoftheacademiciansofan- cerned, therefore,we knew nothing about cient Mesopotamia. Because ProfessorLands-
bergerhad devoted a lifetimeto theirstudy,he
was an unchallengedcaretakerof these difficult
textswhichprovidedthe ancient,as well as the
modern scholar, with sign lists, pronouncing

vocabularies, bilingual lexicons topically ar-
ranged, grammatical treatises and, in brief,
referencweorksofallkinds.2 Itwashisintimate pletelyinthedarkaboutthetheoryandpractice knowledgeof these texts that caused the total
collapse of a theoryconcerningancient Meso-
potamian music, a theory that had gained a
fairrecognitionby the 1930’s.

At that time,a particularcuneiformtext3con-
taininga listofsimplesyllables,frequentlycalled
“Aameme” after its opening entries,had been
interpretedas an orderedcollectionof notes re-
latingto a scale of threeoctaves. This textwas usedtoexplainthemysterious,marginallyNotenschrift”inFestschrifMtax babylonische written,simplesyllablesthataccompaniedcer- (Berlin,1933),pp. 170-178. FreiherrnvonOppenheim tain hymnic literature;4 these syllables were 6 Benno Landsberger, “Zum Silbenalphabet B” in M.

interpretedas musical notations. Landsberger, ;g and H. Klzilyay, Zwei altbabylonischSechulbuichearus Nippur (Turk Tarih Kurumu Yayinlarindan VII, Seri No.


2 For an excellent, though brief,descriptionof these texts,see A. L. Oppenheim,A ncientMesopotamia (Chicago, 1964), pp. 244-248.

3KAR No. 4.

4Collected and discussed in G. A. Reisner,Sumerische- babylonischeHymnennach ThontafelngriechischerZeit (Berlin, 1896), pp. xvi-xvii. Cf. CT 42 (London, 1959),

35, Ankara, 1959): pp. 97-116 (cf.pp. 66-76).
7 Curt Sachs, “Ein babylonischerHymnus,” Archivfur Musikwissenschaft7 (1925): pp. 1-22 (an elaboration of the same author’s “Die Entzifferungeiner babylonischen Notenschrift,”SitzungsberichtdeerpreussischenAkademie

der Wissenschaften1924: pp. 120-123).
8 Francis W. Galpin, The Music of the Sumerians

“Observations ofa Lexicographeron Classes and Class Consciousness in Sumero-Babylonian Society” (delivered in Philadelphia, Tuesday, April 20, 1961).

pl. 1, no. 1.

9Inbeingcalled(DINGI R.)NAR “themusician(-god),” the littleknowngod Dunga is explained as Ea s’a nari “Ea of the musicians” (CT 25 (London, 1909), pl. 48, line 10).

however,proved beyond a doubt in an article5 appearing in 1933 that concerned the “So- called Babylonian Musical Notation,” that the “Aameme” text was indeed a bona fide lexical text,one,moreover,thatwas relatedinsteadto a comprehensivescholarlycollectionofpersonal names. The collection began with shortened names like A-a. A subsequent publication in 1959treatingthissamegenreoflexicaltext,6has servedto furtherhisrepudiationofthetheoryof

Sumero-Babylonianmusic,aside fromwhat ob- servationscould be made fromthe picturesof musical instruments,archaeological finds, the many names of instrumentsnot always identi- fiable, and a veritable sea of Sumerian and Akkadian termsrelatingto choral and instru-

mental music. In short, we have been com-

of that esteemed art whose divine patron was the god of the wateryabyss, the god Enki/Ea,9 always closely associated with magic, with wisdom,and withthe arts and crafts.

The past decade, however,has broughtto light foursinglecuneiformtextsand a fifthtextgroup that reveal not only the concernof the ancient scribes,orscholars,withmusicaltheoryat least

5 Benno Landsberger, “Die angebliche

(Cambridge, 1937), pp. 43-48 and 99-104; reprintedby StrasbourgUniversityPress, 1955.

SOCIETY, VOL. 115,NO. 2, APRIL 1971 131

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as earlyas thefirsthalfofthesecondmillennium the BerlinMuseum.13 In it, the patrongod of

B.C., but that also provide us with the proper
names given to the notes on the scale and to
certainintervalsof the scale. We have learned
that,liketheGreekwordchordemeaningboth text,andaninventoryofsongs,gaveusourfirst stringof an instrumentand note on a scale, the

Sumerianwords a, and itsAkkadianequivalent pitnu,likewisestand for”string,””note,” and “interval,” and may refer to “mode,” and “tuning.”

textual informationfor a Sumero-Babylonian theoryofmusic.

The most importantor key passage is part of
oftheUniversityMuseum in Philadelphia. The
because one may see in thisa parallel,and in all
probabilitya forerunnert,o the importanceof published in transliterationand translation.15 themusicalstringinPythagoreantheory.10 The passagedealingwiththestringsofmusical

The Philadelphiatablet1″is a listofcoefficients instrumentswas only a small part of the whole, relatingto a varietyof mathematicalproblems. however, was still imperfectlyread, and had Whereaslistsofthiskindare wellknownforthe receivedlittleattention. For mypart,onlyone Old Babylonian period of the early second thing was absolutely certain: that the lines

millenniumB.C., the Philadelphia text deviates fromthestandardformatin thatit includes materialnotusuallyfound,and dates,ifnotto the Kassite period (middle second millennium B.C.), to the Neo-Babylonian (middle to late firstmillenniumB.C.). The second passage is partofa bilingualtextfromthecityofUr,now in the British Museum.12 It is part of the encyclopedicworkentitledNabnitu(“Creation”) which deals with human actions and activities of all kinds; this passage belongs to its 32nd tablet, devoted entirelyto musicologicalterms. The third passage was found in an Akkadian catalogofsongtitlesarrangedaccordingtotype; it is fromAssur, and is now in the collectionof

10The close association ofthestudyofmathematicsand music is also well attested in the Edubba (“Tablethouse”) literature; e.g., lines 24 and 27f. of the Old Babylonian bilingualExaminationTextA(soontobepublishedby ProfessorAke Sjoberg): “(As to the various types of s i r- songs,) do you know how to divide theirverses, to recite the antiphon(s) and the finale?” “Multiplication, frac- tions, to divide an inheritance,to make boundaries in the fields,doyouknowhow(todoallthat)?” “(As tovarious musical instrumentsand their parts,) do you know how many there are, (or how) to identifythem by name?”

“1CBS 10996. Published by A. D. Kilmer, “Two New Lists of Key Numbers for Mathematical Operations,” Orientalia 29 (1960): pp. 273-308 with P1. LXXXIII.

12 U.301 1. The pertinentlinesare presentedon pp. 264- 265 ofA. D. Kilmer,”The StringsofMusical Instru- ments: Their Names, Numbers, and Significance,”AS 16, pp. 261-268.

dealingwiththemusicalstringswereas valuable as theywereobscure. In 1960,thepertinent linesofthemathematicaltextwererenderedas follows:

music,Ea, is mentionedrepeatedlyin therefrain “May Ea command thy (the singer’s) life.”14 These threetexts,a mathematicaltext,a lexical

It was ProfessorLandsberger,who knewso well his thousandsof lines of lexical texts,who firstrecognizedthesimilaritybetweenthebroken section of the lexical text (U.3011) and an obscurepassageinthemathematicaltext(CBS 10996). He broughtthese two passages to the writer’sattentionin 1959 in connectionwith anotherlistofcoefficientbseingstudiedat the time. In 1960 the two mathematicaltextswere


r21?Fr41 4, 3
3, 6
7, 4

CBS 10996 Transliteration

Obversecolumni (at leastfivelinesbroken away at beginning)

rSA x xl-tum
SA kit-mu
SA ti-xi-sar-tum sa-ti-tum
sa mus sum

salia-turnum 15′.SA3!-s`uSIGIuSA3-s”uu’h-ri3,4SA

SA s”a-GE6uzSA 3-su uh-ri2, 4 SA 4-tu SA de-a-DU u SA Cud-mui- 4, 1 SA

SA qud-mu-uuzSA 3-su SIG 1, 3 SA

SA MIN 3-suzu SA sa-GE6 5, 2 SA


13 Published as KAR No. 158. The pertinentlines are presentedanddiscussedbyA.D. Kilmer,ibid.,pp.267f.

14 dEa bala(ka liqbi. 15See footnote11.

4, 6
SA qud-mu-uuzzSA 5-s”u1, 5 SA man-ga-ri SA3 uh-riuSA5-su7,5SASAR.NIGIN2 SA sa-GE6 ui SA 4 uh-ri2, 6 SA i-ar-tum SA qud-mu-uzui SA 4 uh-ri 1, 6 SA

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SA d’-a-Dt 2, 4 SA x

SA 4 uh-riuzSA 3-s’uSIG 6, 3 S[A ] SA 3-svuSIG u’SA 5-vu[3],[]
SA 3-s”uh-riu [
SA de-a-DU[ ]

(remainderof columnbroken)


Obverse column i (five or more lines broken)

“Ea-made(-it)” stringand forestring4, 1 . . .string

fore string and third thin string 5, 2 “Elamite” string

. . .stringand secondstring5, 2 “middle” string

second string and “Ea-made(-it)” string 2, 4 “. . . middle” string

fourth-behinsdtringand thirdthinstring 6,3 [ ] thirdthinstringand fifthstringp31,[ ] third-behindstringand [ ] “Ea made(-it)” string[ ]


20′. SA s’ad-GE6 MURUB4-tu

r2],r41 4, 3 3, 6 7, 4

. . . string “covered” string
“. . . upright”string “first”string “second(?)” string

Fortunately,the otherwisecompletelyobscure numeration of the strings as “behind” was elucidatedby the lexical text (U.3011) whichin- formsusthatninemusicalstringsare numberedas follows:1st,2nd,3rd-thinG,od-Ea-made-it,5th, 4th-behind,3rd-behind,2nd-behind,1st-behind. Therefore,atleastitwasclearthat,forexample, thestringcalled “4th-behind”was the6thstring, and so on. Or, moresimply,strings123456789 werenumbered123454321.Thelexicaltextalso contributed,though in broken lines, three of the other terms,namely: i.sartu”upright,” or “normal”; “bridge of the i.sartu”; and kitmu “cover.” The text of U.3011 (Nabnitu tablet 32,col. i) is:

10′. 4, 6
fore string and fifthstring 1, 5 “reed




third-behindstring and fifthstring 7, 5

. . .string
second stringand fourth-behinsdtring2, 6

“upright”string forestringandfourth-behindstring2,6

“third” string
third thin stringand third-behindstring

3, 4 “flute”string
second stringand third-behindstring2, 4


s a . d i
s a. u ‘s
s a . 3 s a . s i g s a . 4 . t u r

sa. di.*5(text4) sa .4 .a .ga .gu 1 sa. 3. a. ga. gu1

rsa. 2 . a. g a1. g u 1 Esa. 1]. a . ga .gu1.1a [9] . s a. a
[ ]x (y)

16 In AS 16, the writerattempted to collect referencesto the word pitnu, and distinguished between a) GIS.NA5

= pitnu, (parts of) wooden furnishings,very likely indi- catingrungs,staves,etc. (p. 262); and b) SA = pitnu,the musical string. (The semantic relationshipof these two meaningsappears to liemintherowoflong,narrowstrings/ staves. Note that the pictographof the NA5( = 9A) sign

is 1, perhaps a kind of comb or scraper.) Add the

referencex. a d . g i . g a z . z a = pitnu sa AD.KID “the pitnu of the reed-craftsman”(Antagal A 156, see CAD sub atkuppu); it may referto a cuttingor smashinginstrument. To the discussion of the playing of the pitnu (AS 16, p. 263) may be added: asar [it-t]a-az-z[a-ma-ru pit]-nu a-lu-uz”where pitnu alu’ are sung/played” (Gilgamesh) I v 9, see CAD A p. 37). (Cannot the alu’ be a stringed instrument?

qud-mu-u[m] sa-mu-su-um sa-al-svuqa-a[t-nu] A-ba-nu-[u]

ha-am-[su] ri-biuh-ri-i[m] sal-siuh-ri-im si-niuih-ri-im uih-ru-um

9 pi-it-nu’l pi-is-mu i-svar-ti

fore(string) next(string) third,thin (string)

fourthof the behind (string) thirdofthebehind(string) secondofthebehind(string) the behind-one(string)
nine strings


fSumerian: fourth,small tAkkadian: Ea-creator

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[ ] [] []

ul-ur i-var-tum [~~~~~~~~~t]i-Ft

… bridge,

15.[ ] []

[x y (z) k]i-it-mu [zy ] -um

. . . cover

Even twiceblessedwithsuch informationt,he

passages remained elusive, to say the least.

Certain observations and corrections of the

thepresentation. Dr. Duchesne-Guilleminpub- lishedherconclusionsin 1963.’7

The writer,convinced of the correctnessof

[xy-u]m … (remainderofcol. 1 broken)

mathematicaltextweremade,anditwasnoted muchofherhypothesis,thoughtroubledwith

that the stringswere presentedin an orderly someofherassumptionson philologicalgrounds,

sequence from1 to 7. The fact that the im- examinedthe passage in the mathematicaltext

mediatelyprecedingand followingsectionswere in consultation with Professor Hans Gustav

broken did not furthercomprehension. Un- fortunatelyunschooled in matters of music, I couldonlyconjecturethatthedesignatedstrings describedchordson a stringedinstrumenta,nd that the chords might be named after other musicalinstrumentasccordingto thesound they produced. But to what purpose I made no guess.

Guiterbockof the Oriental Institute, and with ProfessorSamuel Noah Kramer,curatorof the tabletcollectionoftheUniversityMuseum. I am happytosay thatas a resultofDr. Duchesne- Guillemin’sanalysis, not only were many read- ings greatlyimproved,but we were able to re- store the precedingbroken section to such an extent that the progressionfromone through seven and again to one was firmlyestablished.

A year or so later,a Belgian musicologist,Dr.
Marcelle Duchesne-Guillemin,visited Chicago’s
Oriental Institute. She heard of the music Even though some terms remained untrans- passage and expressedan interestin discussing
it withme. Though we oftenfoundourselves
talkingat crosspurposes,sheofmusicologyand
I ofAkkadianphilologyand ofthedifficultieosf
cuneiformwriting,wemanagedtocompareob- thirds,andthatmuchiseasilyseeninthetext, servations; she ratherquickly reached the con-
clusionthatthenumberedstringsand thenames
givento thecombinationswere,indeed,a presen-
tationoftheintervalson a musicalscale. More-
over,shehypothesizedthatthelackofnumbers discussedbelow):
above seven, and the fact that the progression
turnedfromsevenbacktoone,indicateda cycli- 17 M. Duchesne-Guillemin,”Decouverte d’une Gamme caltheory,andthataheptatonicscaleunderlay babylonienne,”RM49 (1963): pp.3-17.

[a. 1,5 [b. 7,5 [c. 2,6 [d. 1,6 [1. 3,7 [2. 2,7 [3. 4,1 [4. 1,3 [5. 5 2

SA nis GAB.RI] SA se-e-ru]
SA i-sar-tum] SA s’al-sad-tum] SA em-bu-bu] SA 4-tu]

SA MURUB4-tu (= qablitu)]

CBS 10996columni

latable, it was clear that the names of musical intervals were technical musicological terms. Accordingto Dr. Duchesne-Guillemin’sinter- pretation,theintervalsare offifthsf,ourthsa,nd

whichwasnow(1965)revisedasfollows(included here, for the sake of convenience,are several correctedreadings which did not become ap- parent until the discovery of the third text,

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VOL. 115, NO. 2, 1971]


SA ti-turMURUBJ-tum SA kit-mu
SA *pi-tum

SA mus-DU
1, 5 SA nis GAB18.RI
7, 5 SA se-e-rul9
2, 6 SA i-sar-tum
1, 6 SA s3al-sad-tum
3, 7 SA em-bu-nu
2, 7 SA 4-tu
4, 1 SA SUB MURUB420
5, 2 SA MURUB4-tu (= qablitu) 2, 4 SA rti-turlMURUB4-tu

6, 3 S[A kit-mu]
31, [5 SA ti-turi-sar-tum]

7, 4 SA pi-tum] 4, 6 SA mus3-du]

8,22: titurisartum”bridge,normal” 10,24: mustu”comb(?)”

6. 7. 8. 9.

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

F2,4 6, 3 3,5 7,4 4, 6

SA qud-mu-u SA 3 uh-ri SA sa-GE6 SA qud-mu-u SA 3-suiSIG SA sd-GE6 SA dJ-a-D1 SA qud-mu-u SA 5-su

SA sa-GE6 SA 4 uh-ri SA 3-su SIG SA3-su uh-ri SA d_-a-D

u?SA 5-s,u uzSA 5-su
uzSA 4 uh-ri uzSA 4 uh-ri uzSA 3-su uh-ri uzSA 3-siuuh-ri uzSA qud-mu-u u SA 3-su SIG zuSA sd-GE6

iu SA dE-a-DI
t SA 3-sguSIG u SA 5-Fs”u
u [SA d-a-Dfj [EuSA 4 uh-ri

(remainderofcol. i destroyed)

The morecertainchangesinthetranslationof termswere:

lines c, 13: is’artum”normal”
d, 14: salsatum/lsals2tum”a third/thirds”

1, 15: embfibu”flute”
2, 16: 4-tu (= rebtu/rebatu/rebitu)”a

fourth/fourths/fourth” 5,19: qablitu”middle”

6, 20: titurqablitu”bridge,middle” 7,21: kitmu”cover”

18 The cuneiformsigns nis and man, and gab and ga, are similar in appearance.

19 See AS 16, p. 266 n. 44.

20 Cf. AS 16, p. 266 with n. 49 forthe old reading and a hint at the new. NIM.MURUB4 must now definitelybe read SUB.MURUB4 = nid qabli “fall of the middle”

(see footnote 64 below). With little doubt, too, the same “mode” is indicated in the descriptionof thunder in the commentaryto the astrological text Enuma Anu Enlil: Adad rigimsukima pitni inaddi(,UB) // pitnu sa SUB!(looks like DU).MURUB4 “if Adad thunders (lit. ‘his noise falls’) like a (whole) scale(?) // (that means) a scale (?) ofthefall-of-the-middl(e-type)” (textcitedAS 16, p. 263 with n. 19). Note also that this octave-species alone is that named in each repeated summary-refrainof the Hurrian hymn-catalogsfromRas Shamra (discussed below): anna zam(m)arfi sa nid qabli “these are the songs of the nid qabli (mode).”

With the subsequent inclusionof two other termsnamedin thelexicaltext,thoughunknown in the mathematical text, Dr. Duchesne- Guilleminwas able to elaborate her discussion of the Babylonian scale and enlarge the little corpusofnamedintervals. The entiresystem, in her estimation,has separate names for the octave,forsixths,fifthsf,ourthsa, tritone,major and minorthirds,and possiblyfora singlewhole tone. The names of the intervalsdifferaccord- ing to whichstrings,or “notes” ifyou will,form the startingand stopping point. She adduces for Mesopotamia a heptatonic scale that is

Lydian as to species,supposinga half-toneto lie

betweenthe thirdand fourthstringson the oftheappellationforthethirdstringas “thin.”21 The interpretationosf Dr. Duchesne-Guillemin

(RM 52 (1966): pp. 160 & 152) werethe follow- ing (the Akkadian is here slightlyrevised or corrected):

21M. Duchesne-Guillemin, “A l’Aube de la Theorie Musicale: Concordancedetroistablettesbabyloniennes,” RM 52 (1966): pp. 147-162 (manypointsalreadyexpressed in her 1963 article; see footnote17).


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No. of strings

Nine strings Octave (?) Sixths


Tritone Fourths



pismu lalsatum

-RT, — F-A

1 3. 2

– A- –


“third” rebutum “fourth”

nis GAB.RI igartum embubu pitu

nid qabli qablitu kitmu

Major Thirds GI.NIM.MA multu


Minor Thirds titur gabli or

Trihemitones titur i’artum lalsatum “third”

rebuitum ” fourth” Tone (?) x-x-x kitmu22

22 M. Duchesne-Guillemin’s rejection (ibid., p. 159) of writes ti-tiu-urin line 13. For acceptance of a [ti-til-ur] the restoration[titur] kitmuon the basis of x x x being one kitmu,see below, p. 32.
too many signs forthe word is not valid forU.3011, which

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nig GAB.RI


_- _

nid aabli

titur qabli _~~~~~

seru isartum

embuibu rebutum __


kitmu= muhtu


thewritertojust sucha context.
Among the names that were read with cer-

tainty fromthe outset was the Akkadian word embu7buw,ell knownas the name of a flute,and

qablit u

titur iWartum

cycle reconmences

Thus far,ourinformationhad comefromtwo
mutually elucidating texts that presented the
informationin listform. We werestillwithout
contexts which would establish the application
ofthehypothesis,anditsconfirmation.Fortu- afifthe,xtendingfromthesecondtothesixth nately,twoofthetermsusedfortheintervalsled

usedtodescribetheintervalofa fifthextending andmostcommonly,thewordmeans”straight,”

fromthethirdstringto theseventh. In a rather
vigorousefforto findmorepassages usingthe
same intervalnames,I had failed,albeit withthe
help of the exhaustivefilesof Chicago’s Oriental
Institute’sAssyrianDictionaryproject,to locate have a variant pronunciationas isertu. This a singleone. I had, of course,in consultingthe pronunciationhappens to be homonymouswith file cards, repeatedly come across the word another Akkadian word esertu, meaning “holy embuibul,istedas thenameofa fluteinnumerous place,” or “shrine.” I then rememberedthat

contexts, together with other named instru- under the word esertu “shrine” had been fileda ments; but lists of instrumentswere not fruitful

formypurposes. Oneofthereferencewsastoa 23KAR 158(seefootnote13).

lineina long-knowncatalogofsongtitles.23The composition appears to have been written in honorofthepatronofmusic,thegod Ea.

Anothertermused to describethe intervalof

string,was the word isartu. This word, an adjectivederivedfromtheSemiticrootwiththe meaning”to be straight,”was knownelsewhere as descriptiveof a harp,and had been translated as “upright,” for “upright harp.” Otherwise,

“normal,” “direct,” and so forth. Again, aside fromitsoccurrenceinlistsofinstrumentsI,had vainlysearchedforthewordin a musicalcontext. However, it was true that the word isartu may

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card recordinga linefromtheverysame catalog of song titles. With high hopes, and a preju- diced assumption,then,thatmyisartuand the catalog’s esertuwereonlyvariantpronunciations of the same word,and that a meaning”shrine” mightbe incorrectand thus incorrectlyfiled,I turnedto the catalog itself.

This catalogofvariouscategoriesoflyricshas
a summation in its last column of the total
numberofdifferentypesofsongsenteredon the
tablet. The passageofinterestformelistedthe
total number of “Breast”-songs, that is, love-
songs,24contained in the inventory. In this
seven-linepassage, I saw, nearlyat a glance,that
ifseveralcorrectionsweremade in theold trans-
literations,and ifone emendationwereallowed,
andthatifI madecertainminorchangesinthe
readingsof the mathematicaltext,here was a
intervals. This turnedout to be not only pos-
sible, but correct. Moreover, the seven terms as, essentially,123454321. Whereas I, at the were also arrangedin a strictsequence. Once
again, an obscure and poorlyread passage was
elucidatedby meansofanother:

KAR 158 col. viii CBS 10996 col. i 45. 23iratusae-4ir-tAekkadsKI linesc,13

very beginningof my workon the two comple- mentarypassages, had thoughtthat the word “behind” mightreferto four,perhapsharmonic, stringslying under the firstfive,she has ad- vancedtheideathatapentatonicscaleunderlies this numeration,and that the stringscalled “behind” are, then, the “octaves” of the first four. This is especiallyattractive,accordingto

“23 lovesongs,ofthe’normal'(type), Akkadian”

Though the names of the intervalswere all read, not all wereto be translatedwithsecurity. In myopinion,theveryexistenceofthisdupli- cate passage, quite unrecognized before Dr. Duchesne-Guilleminadvanced her hypothesis, was firmsupportofa coherent,cyclicaltheoryof music,even ifit did not lend itselfas proofof the kindofscale in use.

But perhaps more interestingthan the still shadowynamesoftheintervals,is theirpurpose ina catalogofcultlyrics. The exactcontext,as given above, must be interpretedas containing descriptions of love songs. Though I had thoughtonly in termsof the differentkeys in whichthesongsmightbe sung,26Dr. Duchesne- Guillemin,in a postscriptto our joint contribu- tion,suggestedthatthesetermsmustdescribe modes,27whichis obviouslymoreto thepoint.

She has also paid particularattentionto the significanceof the numberingof the nine strings

17 iratusa ki-it-me 7, 21
“17lovesongs,ofthe’cover'(type)” herinterpretationb,ecauseityieldsa”perfect

46. 47. 48. 49. 50.



25 See Kilmer,AS 16,p. 268 withn. 59 (and notealready, Langdon, Jour.Royal Asiatic Soc. 1921: p. 187) and correct the lapsus in the statement referringto the sequence of intervals in KAR 158; it should read: “Just as in CBS 10996 i, seven intervals appear, though here the sequence starts with the second and ends with the 5th.”

symmetry”of tonal compositionwhen one startsat each endoftheninestringsand works inward.28 Only the central,fifthstringis left outofthesymmetry.Shehasfurtherattempted to explain the mathematicaltext’s passage as reflectingthe point in time at which the penta- tonic scale gave way to the heptatonic,that change being the raison d’etreof the passage. That is, its purpose was the conversionof the stringterminologyfrompentatonicto heptatonic use.

24 iratusa eb-bu-be
“24 lovesongs,ofthe’flute'(type)”

1, 15 9, 23 3,17 a, 11


4 iratusa pi-i-te
“4 lovesongs,ofthe. . . (type)”

[ [

[ ”

] iratusa ni-idMURUB4 love songs,of the . . . (type)” ] iratusa ni-*is (copy: irlT)

love songs,of the . . . (type)”

] iratusa MURUB4-te (= qablkte)

TlhoughI can followmusicologicalargument onlywiththegreatestdifficultyI,am notcon- vincedthatherassessmentofthepurposeofthe mathematical text is correct,if for no other reason than the date of the text, which I originallyplaced in the middle of the second millenniumB.C. That would mean that the passage presumablyattestinga conversionfrom pentatonism to heptatonism would be some

26 Kilmer,AS 16, p. 268 n. 60.

27 M. Duchesne-Guillemin,AS 16, p. 272, and RM 52 (1966): pp. 154-157.

28 M. Duchesne-Guillemin,RM 52 (1966): p. 162.

lovesongs,ofthe’middle’ (type)”

[naphar x iratuAk-ka-d]u-ui “total ofx love songs,Akkadian” 25

Why is the term”breast” used fora love song?

Is it

because love songs are played on the lyre/harpwhichis set against the breast when being played?

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“bridge, normal” (or”bridgeofthe

normal”) “opening/open”38 “comb”(?)39

seven or eight hundred years older than the lexical text that expounds the pentatonically based numerationof the nine strings,a serious difficultyat best.

More recently,Dr. Duchesne-Guilleminhas directed her effortstoward understandingthe Greek terminologyforthe notes on the scale by means of our Babylonian material,an area that looksratherseductive.29’30

6a. titzukritmu

As of 1968, the full list of the names of
the intervalsfoundin CBS 10996 and KAR 158
and their tentative translations was as fol-
lows(a-numbersareintermediateorsecondary theverysameterms,andexpandproductively intervals):


Ia. 2.


3. 3a.

4. 4a. 5. 5a.



svru isvartu


“rise/breathof the 31

“morning”(?)32 “normal/upright/

“a third/thirds/

“(nameof a) flute”34

the musicological interpretations.Typically, the new texts will be seen to have helped to clarifysome of the uncertaintiesthat remained.

Still in 1968, Dr. Edmond Sollberger,of the Department of Western Asiatic Antiquities of theBritishMuseum,discovered,in thecollection of unpublishedUr tablets, an Old Babylonian (i.e. firsthalf of the second millenniumB.C.) fragmentof a musical treatise (U.7/80). He turned it over to Professor0. R.

embzbdu/ebbzTbu rebitu/reb6tu/rebfitu”a

fourth/fourths/ Gurney of

nid qcabi-35 “fall of the middle”

eIamu'(GlS.NIM.MA3 “Elamite” (?)31 qablitu “middle” titurqablctu “bridge,middle” (or

“bridge of the

middle”) kitmu “cover” (?)37

Oxford,who was keenlyinterestedbecause he was to publish the Nabnitu 32 tablet, U.3011, and because he had been in consultationwiththe musicologistM,r.DavidWulstan,alsoofOxford. Gurneypublishedthe tablet as “An Old Baby- lonianTreatiseon theTuningoftheHarp.” 40

This textutilizesthesevenprimary4ilnterval names (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ofour listabove), as well as thenumberedstringnamesknownfromCBS 10996 and U.3011, forthe purposeof instruction in the tuningof the z a . mi /sammui instru- ment.42 The process involves changing43the stringsup or down a semitonein orderto obtain the desired “tuning.” This text providesaddi- tional proofof the heptatonicscale and of the

use of the terms for the octave-species. It should be stressed that the age of this text is furtherevidenceforthe antiquityof the hepta-

29 M. Duchesne-Guillemin, “Survivance orientale dans la Designation des Cordes de la Lyre en Grece?” Syria 44 (1967): pp. 233-246.

30 The writer wonders why no one has discussed the association (or dissociation) of the Babylonian termswith the Sanskrit names of the alternationsof notes on the scale in the Indian system (see the New OxfordHistoryofMusic

(London, 1957), pp. 208 f.): e.g., “fallen” and “not fallen” (cf. nidu); “common” (cf. i’sartu); “middle” (cf. qablitu);

“hair-fine”(cf.sal.’u qatnu).
31 If GABA.RI is for Akkadian gabarui,it can mean

“opponent” or “duplicate,” see CAD G; if one may read
qab-ri,then qabru “grave, depth”; also possible is gab/pru
“strong.” The most likely reading, however, is mihru; similarto gidlu,or “string,”ofgarlic. See CAD subgidlu. see now footnote61.

32 se-e-rucould have other meanings,and it now appears to be a specifictechnical term. For discussion, see foot- note 62.

33Note that isartu is said of straight (as opposed to slanting) cuneiformhandwritingin Examination TextA, line 19 (see footnote10).

34 Embuibuis also the trachea.
35For explanation of this reading,see footnote20.
36 But see below (with footnote 64) for the corrected

37 But see below (withfootnote66) forbettertranslation.

39 But see below forcorrectedreading.
40 Iraq 30 (1968): pp. 229-233.
41 See D. Wulstan, Iraq 30 (1968): p. 216 n. 3.
42 For the latest argumentthat the sammu’is a lyre,see

M. Duchesne-Guillemin,RM 55 (1969): pp. 10-11.
43The technicaltermsfortighteningand looseningthe stringswerecollectedin Kilmer,AS 16,p. 263 n. 24. For

confirmationof U.3011 rev. iii 21′: t u . I u = ne-Fe/)l[-T3 “to loosen (strings)” (Nabnitu XXXII), see the passages noted by J. Nougayrol in RA 61 (1967): p. 190, and see now the comprehensivecollection of material on t u . u by A. Sjoberg, Orientalia39 (1970): pp. 85-87.

7a. mustu


Since the presentationof this paper in 1968, much new material has appeared, including a cuneiformtreatise on the tuning of the harp, some thirty-onefragmentarycuneiformtexts, plus thirty-sixtinyfragmentsbearingthe same material-all hymn catalogs, and five articles, all of whichhappilycorroborateour findingsfor

38 The word pitu is also the name of a unit of garlic,

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tonicscale.” This fourthtextis herepresented in translation.45

U.7/80 rightcolumn SectionI (tuningdownthestring)

(a). [If the sammu-lyre/harpwas (tuned as) pitu, but]

  1. the embuibu(interval) [was not clear,]
  2. [you altered] the third-thin(string),andthus
  3. the embuibu(interval) [has become clear.46]

15. you (then) altered the second and behind (= 9thstring),andso

16. the sammu2-lyre/hawrpas (tuned as) kitmu. 17. If the sammu2-lyre/harwpas (tuned as)

18. you pElayed] an uncleari.cartu(interval), 19. you alteredthefourth-behin(d= 6thstring>

and so
20. [the sammul-lyre/harpwas (tuned as)

embubu]. (remainderbroken)

Mr. Wulstan, in the same issue,49providesa 4. If the sammu2-lyre/harwpas (tuned as) comprehensivemusicologicaldiscussion of the


  1. the kitmu(interval) [was not clear,]
  2. the fourth-behind (= 6th string) [you

tuningof the harp on the basis of these texts, and also greatly expands the argumentscon- cerning the Babylonian octave-species.50 Mr. Wulstan reviews the texts and Dr. Duchesne- Guillemin’swork,disagreeswithherplacement

altered,and thus]

  1. thekitmuhas [becomeclear.]
  2. If the sammu2-lyre/harwpas (tuned as) ofthesemitone,withherequationoftheBaby-

kit[mu, but]

  1. theis’artu(interval)wasnotclear,
  2. the second and the behind (=9th youaltered,andthus
  3. theis’artuhas becomeclear.
  4. Not augmented(? ?)47

SectionII (tuningupthestring)


lonian fourth string (“Ea-made-it”) and the Greek,4io-qa,ndthereforweithheridentification oftheBabylonianscaleas Lydian. Instead,he proposesthattheCBS 10996passage”seemsto be a catalogue containingall possible intervals except the tones, semitones,and sevenths,”51 that the Babylonian qablitu (“middle”) is more likelytobethecounterpartof,,52 andthat a Pythagorean series of tunings is involved53 when all the evidence is put together. We

13. If the sammu2-lyre/harwpas (tuned as) isartu,[but]

14. you played48(lit. “touc d”) an (unclear) here reproduce a portion of Mr. Wulstan’s


44 See remarkasbove.
45 For the readings that differfromthose of Gurney,see

figure1 (p. 221):

-H. Kiummel, Orientalia 39 below, footnote47.

46 Taking iz-za-kuas 12.

(1970): pp. 255 f.

Also see

for playing a stringed instrument. gU . . . TAG and DU12(TUKU) are also used. For a recent treatment,see W. H. Ph. R6mer, Sumerische”Kdnigshymnen”der Isin- Zeit (Leiden, 1965), p. 271 as well as A. Sjoberg, AS 16, p. 64 n. 1. Add now H. Kiummel,op. cit.,p. 256 n. 1.

47 Provisional translationof [x?] NU.SU [y] based on
NU = Id “not,” and SU = riabu “to augment, increase,
replace,” and assuming that this line is a sub-label de-
scribingthepreceding”Section I.” Perhapstoberestored
as [SA] NU.SU.SEU] “string(s) not augmented.” [An- an “Elamite invention,” since the reading GIS.NIM.MA other possibility: NU.SU (for SU).U[D] “not embel- has now been unquestionably discarded. See footnote

lished” (= ulluhu, see CAD E p. 79, sub elehu.)]
48 0. R. Gurney (Iraq 30 (1968): p. 230) questioned his translation “played” for talput; but lapdtu (TAG) and

lupputu (TAG.TAG) are well attested as technical terms

51Ibid., p. 216.
52 Ibid.,pp. 217 f. 53Ibid.,p. 220.

49David Wulstan, “The Tuning of the Babylonian Harp,” Iraq 30 (1968): pp. 215-228.

50 Wulstan’s last section (ibid., pp. 226-228) on the “thin string”mustbealteredwithreferencetothespeculationon

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isartum- tuning

kitmum- tuning

tuning –

Thetic notation



-* S_


= U$3-


.new tritone

nw ro new tritone

= iXartum-interval

= km*tv -kitmum-interval

_ _ _ __



Moreover,heisable toexplainbywhatlogicthe of the scales presentedabove is the differencebe- same terms may stand not only for un-fixed tween the Greek thetic and dynamic nomenclature. intervals, but lend themselves then to the If we go furtherin our analogy of Greek practice

namingofaspecificscale. Inhiswords(p.222),

It cannot have escaped the readerfamiliarwith
speciesis the same as that of the Greekspeciesin
Ptolemy’sSystemwhenarrangedin the orderdic- tatedbytheirnames:Dorian,hypo-DorianP,hry-speciesprojectedontoit,eachscaleisnamedby gian,andsoforth.Also,itcanbeseenthatthe thepositionofitscharacteristicsegmentasoriented differencbetweentheleft-andright-hanvdersions onthe(thetic)D scale. Thus:



igartum scale

kitmumscale J

kitmum-interval ,_ * —-




‘Starting-note’ ____*)

andlookforthecharacteristicDoriansegment(E-B) in each ofthe Babylonian species it is foundthat this segmentis described by the same interval name as itseponymoustuningonlyonthebasisofthethetic D scale postulated on p. 220. In other words, if this scale is accepted as a basic matrix and the 7




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Lastly, Mr. Wulstan discusses the Harmony of theSpheres,knownfromGreektheory,as having its origin in the Babylonian orderingof the octave-species.

were unknown Hurrian words) which, if their transcriptionwere altered slightly, were un- questionablythealreadyknownAkkadiannames of intervals: kab-li-te,ti-tar-kab-lin,a-at-kab-li,

The two most recent contributions(which and kit-me. All were followedby unexplained were in my hands only afterthis articlewas all numbers. Here, then, were five of the terms! butfinished)comefromDr. Duchesne-Guillemin The otherterms,afterthegroundworkhad been on “La Theorie Babyloniennedes Metaboles laid by Dr. Giuterbocka,nd witha fewsugges-

Musicales,” 54and fromDr. H. M. Kummel of
Tubingen,in a furtherarticleon the tuningof
the Babylonian lyre/harp,5w5ho sums up the
formertreatmentsand offerseveralconvincing garbled, barbaric Akkadian, presumably the independentanalyses. But herethewritergives workof a Hurrianscribe. Especiallygratifying up all pretense of followingthe musicological is the fact that they help us to correctsome of arguments,althoughshe has studied the newest our uncertainreadings.58 philologicalevidencewiththegreatestinterest. The texts are numberedup to thirty-one,

In an appendix to his article Dr. Kiimmel and are composed of many more fragments. makes the firstpublished,but brief,referenceto Each one appears to be a catalog of Hurrian

themostrecentlydiscoveredgroupofcuneiform hymnsto gods; afterthe text of a hymn,a

textsthatdisplayoursame corpusofterms. dividingline introducesa paragraphconsisting Examininghis advance copy of UgariticaV,56 of the known Akkadian musical terms (and a

ProfessorGiiterbockmade a furtherdiscovery. few unknownones, see below) followedby a In Prof.E. Laroche’s chapteron Hurriantexts,57 number. Apparently, these are the musical

in several fragmentarytexts with similar sec-
tions divided by rulings,he noted at a glance directionsforthesingingorplayingofthehymns.

several words (which, according to Laroche, For example,R.S. 15.30 + 49 [h.6]:59 lines:1-4. (thewordsofa hymn,inHurrian)

  1. qab-li-te3 ir-bu-te1 qaib-li-t2e? x x x [ti-]ti-mi-sar-t1e0 us-ta-Fma-a-ril
  2. ti-ti-mi-sar-2tezi-ir-te1 ‘a-[a]i-ri 2 x x -te2 ir-bu-te2
  3. um-bu-be1 sa-as-sa-te2 ir-bu-tex [s]a-[as-s]a-t[e] x ti-tar-qdabt-il-iti-mi-sar-4te
  4. zi-ir-te1 sa-ah-ri2 sa-as-sa-t[e] 4 ir-bu-te1 na-ad-qacb-l1i sa-ah-ri1
  5. sa-as-sa-te4 sa-ah-ri1 sa-as-s[a-t]e 2 sa-ah-ri1 sa-as-sa-te2 ir-[b]u-[te] 2
  6. ki-it-me2 qdb-li-te3 ki-it-[me]1 qdb-li-te4 ki-it-me1 qaib-li-t5e?

11. [an-nu]-uiza-am-ma-rusa ni-id-qib-lzia-[lu-zisa DINGIR.MES TA mUr-hj-a]SU mAm-mu-ra-pi

tionsby thewriter,by Dr. Duchesne-Guillemin, and by Dr. Kiimmel,have now been recovered andmaynowbeseentobethesame,thoughina

(“These are the songs of nid-qabli(-mode), hymns(?) of the gods; from(the collectionof the musician)Urhiya. Copied byAmmurapi(thescribe).”)

54 M. Duchesne-Guillemin,RM 55 (1969): pp. 3-11. liegenden Saiten ausgehen, nicht dagegen Intervalle

Duchesne-Guilleminmustbeassumedtohavegivenupher speculation on the mathematical text CBS 10996 as being the point in time at which pentatonism gave way to heptatonism, since she recognizes the old age of hepta- tonism (p. 4). She disagrees with Wulstan on many points, especially his use of Greek theory to explain the cuneiformdocuments, which she considers “un anachro- nism dangereux” (p. 7). She concludes (p. 10): “Ob- servons, en guise de conclusion a cette analyse, que la gamme de base babylonienne est semblable, compte non tenu du temperament,a notre gamme de do majeur et que l’ordredes alterationsdans les metabolesest le meme que celui de nos bemols et de nos diezes. Est-ce tradition ou coincidence de structure tonale? Le probleme reste ouverte.”

55H. M. Kuimmel,”Zur Stimmung der babylonischen Harfe,” Orientalia 39 (1970): pp. 252-263. Kiimmel pre- fers the term “double stop” to “interval” since he feels that the Babylonian terms “lediglich von der Lage der Saiten innerhalbder Harfe und der Zahl der dazwischen-

akustisch als deren Schwingungsverhaltnissemeinen” (p. 252 n. 1).

His explanations (pp. 259ff.) of the use of the same Akkadian terms for “interval/double stop” on the one hand, and the different”tuning” on the other,which usage became obvious throughU.7/80, are ingenious. He feels it is not necessary to explain these phenomena through ancient Greek theory.

56 Jean Nougayrol et al., Mission de Ras Shamra X VI: Ugaritica V (Paris, 1968).

57 E. Laroche, “Documents en Langue hourriteprove- nant de Ras Shamra,” in ibid., pp. 448-544.

58 ProfessorH. G. Guiterbock’sresults will appear in the article “Musical Notation in Ugarit” in a forthcoming- number of RA 64 (1970). To our chagrin, a few of the same fragmentswere already published by Laroche in J. Nougayrol, Mission de Ras Shamra VI: Le Palais Royal d’ UgaritIII (Paris, 1955), pp. 327-335.

59 UgariticaV,p.463.

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With the help of these texts,a correctedlist of interval/tuningnames (but one may doubt that thiswillbe thefinalredaction!)maybe presented:

Standard Akkadian (Sumerian logogramsin parentheses)

CBS 10996, KAR 158, U.3011, U.7/80

1. nis mihri/gabari

(GAB. RI) la.

2. isartu


sru salsatu


Barbarized Akkadian formsin Ugaritica V

not attested60$

irbute nid-qablj65(nad-qib1i,

nid-qibli) esgi

qablite titi/ar-65qabli kitme titi(m)isarte65

not attested68 zirte


rise of the antiphon/ duplicate6l

(main themeofa) song62 normal/straight66
(name of a) flute

faII65^ from/otfhemiddle

bridge (of/from?)middle closed66
bridge (of/from?)normal

(meaning uncertain)69

2a. 3. 3a. 4.

5. qablitu Sa.
6. kitmu 6a.

7. 7a.


nid qabli (SUB64.MURUB4)


esqu/isqu (GIS.SUB.BA)


(also in U.3011)67




60Cf.footnotes31-38. Doesseru,asthenameofaninterval,refer,thereforet,o 6qa Butcf.footnote72withfootnote61. theSumerian”mode” inwhichtheresponsiverepeatsof 61 The most likely reading here is GAB.RI = mihru, b a 1a g (and other?) compositions were performed? It

usually “equivalent,” instead of GAB.RI = gabaru'”dupli- cate, opponent,” but mihruis to be understoodin its well- attested meaning “antiphon, response” as in mihirzamari (see CAD sub zamaru, and AHw sub mehru),even though the usual Sumerian equivalent for mihru, when said of songs, is GIS. (GI4.)GAL. Contrast footnote 72, and see footnote62.

62 In Akkadian, the word seru is a technical term de- scribinga particular musical composition: zamar Sri. Evidence indicates that it is a composition consisting of

(Wiesbaden, 1966), p. 34 for this reference,as well as for s i r . ha . m u n elucidation of the phonetically written hymn incipits in si r. t e’ s’. gal
that text). Confusing, but not necessarily conflicting s i r. k u evidencearisesfromtheequation (Sumerian) .gur8.ra

= sru ‘an’ “torepeatthesru” (seeA.Falkenstein,ZA sir.nam.ga1a NF 15,1949,pp. 104ff.);sincelongba 1a gcompositions r (ofwhichtheer’semmamayonlyformanintroductory s1r.nam.sub

section, see Krecher, op. cit., p. 29 with n. 59) are often dividedintoasmanyastenandfifteenkirugu’s,one “songoflordship”

(Sumerian) b a 1a g and e r ‘se m m a, since this type of
Sumerian composition (vocal, with instrumentalaccom-
paniment) is called a seru in an Old Babylonian Istar cult
ritual from Mari (see J. Krecher, Sumerische Kuiltlyrik si r . g I d . d a

is led to thinkof that many “repeats” of the major section, called, then, the seru. Because Sumerian r u . g (u as verb is equated with Akkadian mhr (Falkenstein, loc. cit.), known to us in the musical context as mihru “response, antiphon” (see precedingfootnote),it is temptingto see k i . r u . g ui as “the place (in the song) of the antipho- nals,” that is, where the main composition, or theme, is repeated, perhaps responsively (by more than one singer, or chorus, with orchestration),perhaps with variations

s i r. r a. n a m . n i r. ra “song of manly valor”
My colleague, ProfessorJonas Greenfield,whom I here thank for his assistance on this and several other points,

has agreed to contributethe followingremarksregarding the relation of Akkadian se,ruto the Semitic root SCr: “The Semitic root SCrrelatingto poetryand song is found in a variety of formsin the languages of the ancient Near East. In Arabic it maintains its originalformand mean- ing,viz.saCir’a poet.’ But at an earlyperioditunderwent in Akkadian the change typical of roots containing a laryngeal,where the loss of Cayinis reflectedin the long e

(anidin particularoctave species?), and wherea particular
antiphon may be specifiedand sung. That is, in addition
tothenotationkirugu,theremayfollowa sectionin ofseru. ItmaybepresumedthatAkk.seru’song’entered

thetextwiththesubscriptgi’s. gi4.”it Sumerianatthisearlyperiodandisthesourceofthe is its antiphon” (see Krecher, op. cit.,p. 32). common Sumerian word s i r ‘song, poetic composition.’

is probably significantthat this word is the name of the interval directly following the nis mihri “rise of the antiphon” -interval.

What is the connection between Akkadian seru and Sumerian ‘si r ? The latter seems to be used as a general term for “song,” or a specific type of “song,” e.g.: [n .t] e. ni ‘sir. ra si1im. se mu un. e”(Shulgi) preistsich selbst im Liede” (Shulgi B 9, cited in C. Wilcke, Das Lugalbandaepos,Wiesbaden,1969,pp.161f.);itisthe base word on which many compounds are made, all names of musical compositions,e.g.:

“song of the woman in travail” “great song”
“long song” (?)
“song fordifferentvoices” (?) “great unison song” (fn. 77 I) “sacred song” “boat(-man’s)song” “songofthekahl-priestsc’raft” “songofthemusicians’craft” “incantationsong”

s i r . a m a . g a n a s r . g a

“song of heroism”

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The only other term that has been brought the termsare easily foundin the Hurrian texts. intothediscussionis pismu,fromU.3011; Dr. There are, however,several additional terms Duchesne-Guilleminhassuggestedthatitmay foundinthesamesections,fromwhichonemay be a termfortheoctave.70 As to a furtherterm, attemptto findthe counterpartsof termNo. 1 [ti-tui-urk]itmuofU.3011,positedbyWulstan,7′ and termNo. 7. These terms(mostare listed there is no corroborationfor it, and it may or by Laroche on pp. 484 f. in Ugaritica V) may maynotexist. be groupedas follows(the textsh.2 to h.5 are

The Ras Shamra material,then,has brought in Mission de Ras Shamra Vi; h.6ff.are in us severalcorrectedreadings,and all but twoof UgariticaV1):


Group II.


CompoundsmadeupofknowntuningsplustheHurrianwordsfor”high” (ashu) and “low” (turi)and followedbya number:

turi vsahri

Termsthatoccurwithouta numberfollowinga,ndthatmaydirectlyprecedea known term:
pentammaqabli (h.2, h.3, h.25) Connect with Hurrian pent “right/straight”?

(or,butunlikely,withthewordpitu?) pa-hi-takitme (h.2) ?

sahri ashue
Otherwiseunknowntermsfollowedby a number:
hap-se-ma Perhaps connect a) with Akkadian habsu (see CAD): 1. “brittle(?)/

wrinkled(?)”; 2. “matted”; 3. “chopped/broken”;4. “a metal object”; b) witha WestSemiticglossintheEl-AmarnaletterstoZAG “arm/force”

(seeCAD); c)withAkkadianhamsu”five”;butthiswordoccursasname of string,not of interval,in our texts.

As withotherculturewords,such as Sumerian (h) e g a 1 > West Semitic hekal, “si r entered the West Semitic lan- guages and is found there as a productive root: noun ‘ir ‘song,’ and verb ‘ir ‘to sing.’ The Ras Shamra spelling sa-ah-ri may be an attempt at realizing the cayin behind seru. (Cf. W. F. Albright, Journal of the Palestine OrientalSociety4 (1924): p.210andA.Salonen,Journalof Near Eastern Studies 9 (1950): p. 110, on the equation of Heb ;ir,Ar. sCr,and Akk. seru.)” [A.D.K.: Unless we are quite misled and should read, instead, sa uh-ri in the Ras Shamra text! If so, it means “behind,” is one of the stringnames, and we must compare the term habse (for hamse”fifth”?)of the same Ras Shamra text (see below).]

The above appears to prove that the root of Akkadian seruissCr,thereforea,nd notshr”morning,”as frequently thought(see,e.g.,CAD zamarsri “morningsong”).

63The Ras Shamra reading irbuteleads us to conclude that the ordinal rebuitu”fourth” was intended,as well as the ordinal salsatu “third” (forsalustu).

64This reading became completely obvious when the Ras Shamra es-gi( = Akkadian isqu, isqu) could be equated with GIS.SUB(looked like NIM).BA; since then, all “NIM” signs in CBS 10996 could safely be read as SUB. See already Kiummel,op. cit.,p. 253 n. 2 and p. 263.

65 I.e., writtenin Ras Shamra as a singleword.

Therefore,these antonymns,or natural pairs, may well be meant here.

Duchesne-Guillemin’s most recent comment (RM 55: p. 8 with n. 1) suggestingthat we go back again to kitmu = “covered flute” (which never existed!) is completely

circular and misses the point; see already AS 16, p. 267 n.54. Thesamecanbesaidforherinsistence(loc.cit.)on isartu as “upright lyre”; the old translation was only a guess, afterall, and our technical interval term may just as well be used to describe the particular lyre (the lexical passages forwhich the guess “upright” was firstmade, by Landsberger,are cited in CAD sub isartu and in AHw sub &arru).

67 Note that only CBS 10996 and U.3011 use this “secondary” interval name, and that U.3011 is unique (thus far) in its terminologysince it may continue, as Wulstan suggests (op. cit., p. 224), with [ti-tu-ur]kitmu, otherwiseunattested. See below and footnote22.

68 It seems that it must be there, but in what form? See below.

69 Though the reading (MU; and $IR are the same cuneiformsign) is now certain,the same cannot be said for the meaning; some possibilities (see CAD) are: (1) sirtu “firstrank”; (2) zirti”weak” (?) (a West Semitic gloss in the El-Amarna letters); (3) zertu “plaited”; (4) serdu “olive tree” should be out of the running,since the MU; sign is not used forsir, but only sir/zir.

70See AS 16, p. 264 n. 30 and p. 271; RM 52 (1966): pp. 158 f.

71 D. Wulstan,Iraq 30 (1968): p. 224. Cf.footnotes22 and 67 above.

65a Kummel, op. cit., p. 261 n. 2, suggests that perhaps we should understandthe termas meaninga “loweringof the middle.” But contrasthis remarkon p. 263.

66 The verb katamuis used of the legs as “to close,” that is, not walking,and is the opposite of petu'”to open,” said of the legs, walking, as discussed by W. G. Lambert, Babylonian Wisdom Literature (Oxford, 1960), p. 291.

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Group IV.

Group V. Group VI.

The questionis whethertheseare to be understoodas compounds,orwhethertheterms pentammaand pa-hi-tastand alone, withouta number. Cf. the sequence nadqabli titarqabl2i inh.21,and [i]svartepu[garnu] inh.26. I believethatwemaynotexclude, thereforet,he termsthat seem to stand alone, withoutnumbers,fromthe names of intervals. Thefollowingroupisofthattype: Termswithoutnumbersfollowingo,rwithfollowingnumbersnotpreserved: e-ta-m[a]

be-ni-in-ni-m(afollowsazzamira,see below) pu-gar-nu

ud-ga-[ ]
hi-za-w[e ]
ka-za-e[ ]
Terms that are Akkadian (i.e., not Hurrian,see Laroche p. 486): an-nu-uza-am-ma-as-sa Read instead: annuiza-am-ma-rusa nid-qabli”these are the

songs of the ‘fall of the middle(-tuning).’ Words that may be Akkadian:

az-za-mi-ra Do not connect (as does Laroche, p. 484) with Hurrian azzami “figurine,”butreadinstead:a(z)zammira”I willsing”fromzamdru?

us-ta-m/ba-a-ri72Connect with Akkadian marui”to be slow”? If so, forusvtamarri “I make/incant(i.e.,thesongsaccordingtotheparticularinstruc-

ak-ki-im za-lu-zi

tions)slowly.” (II12 pres.) Or,connectwithAkk.s.utabru”‘to prolong,makelong-lasting,”henceusvtabarr”iI prolong(thesing- ing),” and cf. the bilingual passage describinga festival, IV R 18no.1,lines20f.:[…]s. gu.ed’ .bi.ta m 1 . n i . i n . [z a 1] = [. . .] ni-gu-tamu-suu ur-raus-ta-ba[r-ri]

t. . . the music,day and night,he prolongs.”
Connect with Akkadian ekemu (see CAD E p. 67), thus “I will shorten/takeaway”?
The translation”hymns” is a guess. Though it seems to look like a Hurrian word (*saluzze?), perhaps it is to be connected with Akkadian salui/sullu”ito pray,” hence “prayer/hymn,”but what formshould it represent?

A typicalpassage (hereartificiallyconflatedforthesake ofillustration)wouldthenbe: (wordsof hymn)

a (z)zammirabeninnima7[3 ] qablite3irbute1. . .titimitsar1te0ustab/mari sassate4 s.ahri1 sassate2 s.ahri1 sassate2 irbute2

annu zam(m)aruis.anid-qablizaluzi DINGIR.MES
” I will sing the .
middle(-interval) 3(-times?), fourth(-interval)1 (-time?), . . . bridge of the normal(-interval)

10(-times?)I do slowly(?) ;74
third(-interval) 4(-times?), ‘song( ?)'(-interval) 1(-time?), third(-interval) 2(-times?), ‘song(?)’

(-interval)1 (-time?), third(-interval)2 (-times?),fourth(-interval)2 (-times?). These are the songs of the nid-qabli(-tuning);hymns(?) of the gods . .

72To seeinthiswritingthebarbarizedcounterpartof
nItsgabari would require an overly audacious emendation
to us-*ga-*ba-a-ri(ga and ta, and ba and ma may so often lookalike);nit-ta-ba-a-rwiouldbeanother. indicationoftempo.

. . .

73IfAkkadian,onemightthinkofaformlikebiniannu (see CAD) “form,figure.”

74 If this were correct,then some of the lines include an

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Itshouldbenotedthat,justastheKAR 158 musicmighthavesounded. Itwillbeinterest-

catalog utilizes our terms for Akkadian songs exclusively,and verylikelyonlyforlove songs, the Ras Shamra texts appear to fall into the same category,viz. Hurrian “hymns” that are cult love songs. Note that the Hurriancontexts ofthehymnsreferto severalgoddesses,to Hebat, the consortof Teshub, and to “love,” “heart,” “maiden,” “sister,” “gifts,” and other such topics.,

ing to see what the musicologistswill do with thesenewpiecesofinformation.

For myAssyriologicalpart,I plan to continue the study of the song catalog, eager to learn whetherthe many other terms,Sumerian and Akkadian,usedtodescribethevariouscategories of hymnsand songs,may also hide among them technical musicological terms. My study has thus faryieldedonly threeotherpertinentlines, againrelatingtoAkkadian,notSumerian,songs.

Ifitcouldbe truethattheseRas Shamratexts
provideinstructionsforsingingthelyrics,then Butheretheprimaryintervaltermsrefernotto wewouldhaveourfirstleadastohowourancient lovesongs,buttoanothercategoryofsong:

75 Though it is true that one can be over-enthusiastic,it is just possible that another very obscure and very broken group of Ras Shamra texts relatingto the goddess’ cult, writtenin the Ugaritic alphabet, and deemed “Akkadian?” might contain musicological material similar to that discussed in this paper. Not disregardingthe heroic effortsof E. Dhorme to read them in Akkadian (RA 37 (1940): pp. 83-96), we may have a West Semitic text containing the Akkadianmusicterms[UT =CyrusH.Gordon,UgariticTextbookA,nalectaOrientalia38(3v.,Rome,1965);Herdner

= A. Herdner, Corpus des Tablettesen Cuneiformesalphabetiquesdecouvertesa Ras Shamra Ugarit de 1929 a 1939 = Mission de Ras Shamra X (Paris, 1963)]:

UT 104
Herdner 163:

1. dmrkbltni [ ]

\’zmrqablitu . . .
“songs, middle(-tuning). .

3. nll irbtryb [ ]I `iI irbutu -.ribu . .


instead of Dhorme’s (pp. 89, 91 f.)

z2mrkbltni[ ]

zamraku beletni
“je chante notredame .
[ADK note: stative I sg. doubtful]

nll irbtryb[ ] ina liii erbetiriba . . .

“le soir tu entresau couchant
[ADK note: stative II sg. doubtful]

taz2mrmcnhw [ ]

. azamur mcnh.
“. . . je chante. Son repons: . . .”

[ADK note: IC-ni/i”uto answer” is notattestedinAkkadian. For its use in Heb. and Ugar. as “re- sponsive singing” see the note of F. I. Andersen, Vetus Testamen- tum16 (1966): pp. 108-112.]

ms2tykltmkktm[t]. . . mulitikallatemukkatimt.i “de la nuit,fianceevoilee.

btryblz2mrky ]


“tu entresau couchant. chanterai.

phtnmt[ ] -phatina mati . . .

UT 103
= Herdner 162:

“‘elle se leve dans le pays .

“(to exclaim), fourth(-tuning), (to augment)”

4. tadmrmcnhw [ ‘..’zm.r../…… ..

]d “you sing its response”

6. mttykltmktm[ ] .. … kitmu. . .

.. closed(-tuning)”

7. btrybIdmrky[ ]

pitu ‘Jriabulzmr. . .

“topen(-tuning),’ridbu, for singing(?) . . .”

[Note: pitupossibleonlyif Hurrian scribal habits apply]

21f.pht’inm(t) [ ] Econnectwith Ras Shamra

pa-hi-ta ?] . . .


My colleague,TonasGreenfield,withwhomI havediscussedthesetexts,hasexpressedtheopinionthatmysuggestions are plausible.

Je te

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KAR 158
v16(= viii14) 13?7sitrsu’aebbuibAekkadi

likethePhiladelphiatablet,I am afraidthatwe shall be unable to understandtheirsignificance. One must also wonderhow far back in time the

a d .d uo. g a n u n d u m?. b uir. e b a l a g. g a’ ad b a. ba. ni. ib. ‘sa4
gi a .g ar.k’ ba mu. na. an .du12 nar.imin(.7).eadbmey.i .mib.sa4

“the sammZ-lyre, the algar-harp, the balaggu- instrument,the lilissu-drum,

the harharru-strings,the sabitum (and miritum (-stringedinstruments),fillingthe temple,

in good sound, releasingthelips (?) of the b a 1a g composition,

in its own midst let it (= the music) resound;
let the holy algar’s play togetherforEnki;
let the seven musicians cause a resoundingthere-


Note that H. Hartmann prefers the reading t ig i (NAR.BALAG) intheline67,thoughthemajorityoftexts seem to have n a r (Die Musik der SumerischenKultur

(Frankfurtam Main, 1960), p. 87 n. 6). Note that M. Lambert refersto these as the “seven obligatorymusical instruments”(RA 55 (1961): p. 185 sub No. 15). Cf. the firstseveninstrumentsnamedinShulgiB (cf.UrExcava- tions-Texts VI (London, 1963) No. 81 rev. lines 7-11): gi;za.mi, gi;sa.XXX, gia1. gar, g sa. bi.

viii 15

2 KIMIN s’a piteAkkads 13 sitru76-songosf, the”flute

(-tuning),”Akkadian 2 DITTO, of the “open


Unfortunately,the context of songs is poorly preservedin the body of the text; but some are songsofpraisefora god,lordofwisdom.

One ofthetermsused fora secondaryinterval, seru, also appears in the summationsection of KAR 158 viii 19:

naphar 11 zamarsvri “total: 11 svru-songs butthefactthatitisusedinconstructformation, with zamair,and that no word s.a “of” appears, suggests that no tuningor mode is indicated; rather,we have onlya typeofsongwhosecon- text is not preserved (the line followingis the same: 11 zamar alal’ Akkad’ “11 work-songs, Akkadian”).

Ofallthesongcategoriesinthecatalog,there are eightdifferenstongsofSumeriantype,five othersthat may be Sumerianor Akkadian,and seventeen differentAkkadian types. Of all these,only two of the Akkadian song typesare supplied with the “modes,” viz. the sitru-type andtheirtu,orlove-type. Myguessisthatthe Sumeriantermsin particularshouldalso provide us with informationrelating to a theory of music.77 But unlesswe can findanothertablet

76 Doubtless from s’ataru “to write,” s.itru “writing”; but what should it mean here? Is siiru in an Old Babylo- nian Mari cult ritual (G. Dossin, RA 35 (1938): pp. 1-13, col. i 10 and col. iv 9, 27, 32) to be compared? There the context is an elaborate purification/dedicationritual done to instrumentalmusic and Sumerian songs (but called by the Akkadian term srum) of various types, sung by the kalh “cult singer.” Cf. footnote62.

77 In AS 16, p. 265 n. 34, I mentionedthe ratherobscure Sumerian musicological term t i g i . 7, and the possibility of its connection with the heptatonic scale; does it mean “instrumentalmusicintheheptatonicscale”? Here may be added several passages exhibiting the seven chief instrumentsplaying in unison, several t i g i . 7 passages, other pertinentt i g i passages, and another passage that may reveal the importance of the number seven in Sumerian music in general.

I. The Seven Instruments
Eridu Hymn (Enki’s Journeyto Nippur) [Ecf.S. Langdon, American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 39

turm . si. ga

tum, 9 z8mi.rf.tum, *,

9 iizi.Za (or was my AS 16 n. 5, correct?),



161 ff.], lines

II. t i g i . 7 passages

1) EriduHymnlines125f.:
e tigi.7.e si.s a.e nam.sub sum. mu ts1r . ku tes ki a I . d ulo. ge
“House which sets up/performs the t i g i. 7

(-music), (and) which gives forth the magic spells;

(with) holy song(s) (in) unison, the house that makes good the land.”

[Note the following passages for t e s “unison” playing/singing:PBS 1/1, no. 11, iv, 84(= istenis, iii, 52); ED LU, MSL XII, p. 14, 1. 20: read te s-dv12; TCS III. p. 17, 1. 8: ‘sir-t6’s-

g a 1- z u “your great unison song” (correctionof Sjoberg’s reading, courtesy W. J. Heimpel), in context describing large temple orchestras and full choruses that perform amidst feasting and otherentertainment.]

2) Shulgi B (A. Falkenstein,ZA 50 (1949): pp. 61-91; S. N. Kramer in The Ancient Near East, Supple- mentaryTexts and Pictures, J. B. Pritchard, ed.

(Princeton, 1969), pp. 584-586) line 81: n a r. m u tigi.7.e ‘sir”
“My singerssang songs forme in the tigi-7

[Note Kramer’s translation: “My minstrelssang

forme the seven tigi-songs.”]

3) Ke. TempleHymn (G. Gragg, in A. Sjoberg, Texts fromCuneiformSourcesIII (Locust Valley, N. Y., 1969), pp. 155-188) line89: n u n. e ki. gar. ra

tigi.da ar.ra E I

balag gi’ gi’mi.ri.

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Sumerian musicological traditions may reach. as early as the middle of the thirdmillennium Againitisthelexicaltextsthatgiveusreasonto B.C., wehavetheEarlyDynasticlistsofprofes-

believe in the highage of the traditions,forfrom

“Temple foundedby the princewho . . . withthe tigi .”

Note that text A has a variant reading

sions (“Early Dynastic Lu”‘) which provide us with the core of the musicological terms for singersandinstrumentalistsb;ytheOldBaby- lonianperiod,thissame speciesofSumerianand Akkadian texts (especially Proto-Lu’ and the canonical LUI = sa) offerus nearly 100 terms concerningmusiciansandmusicologyt,heclosely relatedcult personnel,and entertainers.78

It is an understatemento say that we have only opened a door on Mesopotamian musical theory,andthatwecanbutpeekinwardthrough asmallclusterofmeaningfutlerms. Iamhope- ful that continuedAssyriologicalresearchwill supplythemusicologistswithan enlargedbody oftechnicalterms. The necessityofcooperation betweenthe two disciplinesis abundantlyclear.

(For furtherinstances of tigi.nI.dulO, see A. Sjoberg, op. cit.,p. 101 n. 2.)

IV. The NumberSeven
If one may, withAaron Shaffer,translateSumerian di. da < di.duii as “music,” thenthefollow- ing passage (a reporton the shades in the Nether- world) may be used to reveal an association of the numberseven with music in general:

lu’ 7.a’m igi bi'(.in) igi

NAM.IMIN(7).NI-da 173notetoline89).

III. t i g i passages

for tigi.da

(ibid., p.

1) Shulgi A (Falkenstein, op. cit.) line 54: si
“I letthegoodtigi(-music)be performedthere.” Note Falkenstein’s translation: “tigi-Instrumente

liessichfroheWeisenspielen.” (ibid.,p.69)

2) Compare Falkenstein’s treatmentof Gudea Cyl. B X 9-11 (A. Falkenstein,SumerischeundAkkadische Hymnenund Gebete(Zurich, 1953), p. 174):

ti.gi4. kisaI.e’.ninnu vhu’I.a si.a.da

“Dass die Pauke, die gute, recht gespielt werde, das sich der Hof des Eninnu mit Freude fiille.”

3) VAS II 4 rev. i 27-32 (A. Sjoberg, Der Mondgott Nanna-Suen I (Stockholm,1960), pp. 97-101): (.in) dnanna

ra . z u si
“Dein grosserVorhof,in dem dein Brot (als Opfer)

Iasst dort die Pauke schone Lieder spielen,
in der hohen (Gotter)versammlunglasst man dir

die Pauke ertonen.
Nanna, dein grosser . . . (etc.).”

Compare, once again, Falkenstein’s translationof the pertinentline: Iasst dort die Pauken ‘des

Guten’ ertonen” (ZA 50: p. 86). 4) Kes TempleHymnlines113-117: kus e.sub uru. sub(.a)

bfi.du,s..a.m dub.6u s’ ib.tus di.da gi s ba.tuku

an.aka gi 8

g u . z a gisal.gar.surx.ra tigi suh.sah4

“Did you see him who had seven sons?” “I saw.” “How does he fare?”

“As a companion of the gods he sits on a chair and listensto music.”

(Gilgamesh,Enkidu, and the Netherworld267-268, inAaronShaffer,SumerianSourcesofTabletXII of the Epic of Gilgamesh. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1963. (University Microfilms63-7085)

Note E. Gordon,SumerianProverbs(Philadelphia, 1959), p. 129: d i(. d i) “to play/sound (the b a 1a g)”; also J. J. A. van Dijk, Sumerische GotterliederII, Abh. der Heidelberger Akademie der Wiss., Phil.-hist. Klasse 1960/1 (Heidel- berg, 1960), p. 50: tigi[a.a]m

k i . d i. b i “‘wo Pauke (und) zamzam-Instrument erklingen”.

See also footnote62 fordiscussionofseveralotherSumerian termsconcernedwith music.

I take this opportunity to thank our very capable student, Daniel A. Foxvog, Cand. Phil., forhis assistance withtheSumerianmaterialutilizedinthisarticle,and for his help in preparingthis manuscript.

78 This material is now published in Materials for the Sumerian Lexicon XII: A Reconstructionof Sumerian and Akkadian Lexical lists (Rome, 1969). Note especially the SumeriantermsinOld Babylonian Proto-Lu,lines587-662.

“The pdsis’u-priestsbeat on the (drum-)skin, theyrecitedthee.subanduru.s’ub (verses); the bull’s hornkept makingthe sound gum-ga, the drumsticks/plectrum(?s) kept making the

sound suh-sah,
a t i g i for the good prince was played.”

In viewofthesyllabically-writtenVAS II 4 variant ni5-inforthemorecommonnt,maywe see inthe t ig i n u n . d u0o. ge of the Kes’ Temple Hymn line a simple variant of the much more frequent expression t i g i . n i . d ui0 . g e and translate all

occurrences, therefore, as “good


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Following is a list of abbreviations used in the footnotes: 1967. “Survivance orientaledans la Designation des. AHw WolframvonSoden,Akka,discheHsandworterbuch CordesdelaLyreenGrece?” Syria44:pp.233-246..

(Wiesbaden, 1959-).
AS 16 Studies in Honor of Benno Landsberger, The

Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago,

AssyriologicalStudies No. 16 (Chicago, 1965). CAD TheAssyrianDictionaryoftheOrientalInstituteof

the Universityof Chicago (Chicago, 1964-).
CT CuneiformTexts from Babylonian Tablets in the

BritishMuseum (London, 1896-).
KAR E. Ebeling, Keilschrifttextaeus Assur religidsen

1969. “La Th6orie babylonienne des M6taboles. musicales.” Revuede Musicologie55: pp. 3-11.

1969. “La Harp A Plectre irannienne: son Origine et sa Diffusion”. Jour. Near Eastern Studies 28: pp. 109-115.

1970. “Note complementaire sur l’Instrument Algar.” Jour. Near Eastern Studies 29: pp. 200-201. GURNEY,0. R. 1968. “An Old Babylonian Treatise on

on the Tuning of the Harp.” Iraq 30: pp. 229-233. Inhalts,WissenschaftlicheVeroffentlichungender GUTERBOCKH,.G. 1970. “MusicalNotationinUgarit”

deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft28 & 34 (Leipzig,

Revued’Assyriologie64: pp. 45-52.
HARTMANNH,. 1960. Die Musik dersumerischenKultur

(Frankfurtam Main).
JENKINS, JEAN. 1969. “A shortNote on AfricanLyres

1919 & 1923).
RA Revue d’A ssyriologie et

d’archeologie orientale

(Paris, 1884-).
RM Revuede Musicologie (Paris, 1917-).
ZA Zeitschriftfuir Assyriologie und vorderasiatische KILMER, A. D. 1960. “Two New Lists of Key Numbers

Archdoloeie(Berlin. 1886-).


BARNETT, R. D. 1969. “New Facts about Musical InstrumentsfromUr.” Iraq 31: pp. 96-103.

BIGGS, R. D. 1968. “The Sumerian Harp.” Amer. Harp Jour. 1: pp. 6-12.

DUCHESNE-GUILLEMIN, M. 1963. “De’couverte d’une Gamme babylonienne.” Revue de Musicologie 49: pp. 3-17.

— 1965. “Note complementairesur la Decouverte de la Gamme babylonienne.” Studies in Honor ofBenno Landsberger= Publications of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago Assyriological Studies No. 16 (Chicago), pp. 268-272.

for Mathematical Operations.” Orientalia 29: pp. 273-308.

1965. “The Strings of Musical Instruments: their Names, Numbers, and Significance.” Studies in Honor of Benno Landsberger= Publications of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, AssyriologicalStudies No. 16 (Chicago), pp. 261-268-

KtMMEL, H. M. 1970. “Zur Stimmung der babylo- nischenHarfe,” Orientalia39: pp. 252-263.

RIMMER, J. 1969. Ancient Musical Instruments of WesternAsia in theBritishMuseum (London).

STAUDER, W. 1967. “Ein Musiktraktat aus dem zwei- ten vorchristlichenJahrtausend.” FestschriftWalter Wiora (Kassel), pp. 157-163.

1970. “Die Musik der Sumerer Babylonier und Assyrer.” OrientalischeMusik=Handbuch derOrien- talistik,Erste Abt: Der Nahe und der MittlereOsten, Erganzungsband IV (Leiden), pp. 171-243.

1966. “A l’Aube de la Theorie Musicale: Concord-
ance de trois tablettes babyloniennes.” Revue de WULSTAN, D. 1968. “The Tuning of the Babylonian

Musicologie52: pp. 147-162. Harp.” Iraq 30: pp. 215-228.

in Use Today.” Iraq 31: p. 103 withpl. XVIII.

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