The Greco-Syriac and Arabic Sources of Barhebraeus’ Mineralogy and Meteorology in “Candelabrum of the Sanctuary,” Base II

Posted by on Jan 18, 2018 in Articles, Library | Comments Off on The Greco-Syriac and Arabic Sources of Barhebraeus’ Mineralogy and Meteorology in “Candelabrum of the Sanctuary,” Base II

The Greco-Syriac and Arabic Sources of Barhebraeus’ Mineralogy and Meteorology in
“Candelabrum of the Sanctuary,” Base II
Source: Islamic Studies, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Summer 2002), pp. 215-269
Published by: Islamic Research Institute, International Islamic University, Islamabad Stable URL:
Accessed: 08-09-2016 18:24 UTC
Linked references are available on JSTOR for this article: You may need to log in to JSTOR to access the linked references.
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at
Islamic Research Institute, International Islamic University, Islamabad is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Islamic Studies
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

Islamic Studies 41:2 (2002) pp. 215-269
The Greco-Syriac and Arabic Sources of Barhebraeus’ Mineralogy and Meteorology in Candelabrum of the
Sanctuary, Base II1
It is known that the Syriac polymath Gregory Barhebraeus (1225/6-1286) made extensive use of Syriac, Arabic and Persian works available to him
in composing his own works. An examination is made below of the sources used in the passages dealing with mineralogy, mathematical geography and meteorology in his major theological work, the Cattdelabrum of the
Sanctuary, whereby it is shown that Barhebraeus depends in these passages more heavily than has hitherto been known on the Arabic works of such authors as Fakhr al-Din al-Razi and Biruni. An attempt will also be made
in the course of the paper to show how the examination of the kind undertaken
here can contribute to the improvement of our knowledge and understanding of the text both of Barhebraeus’ works themselves and of the works used
by him as his sources.
1. Introduction
2. Sources of Mineralogy and Meteorology 2.1. Nicolaus Damascenus
2.2. Ps.-Aristotle, De mundo
2.3. Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, K. al-mabahith al-mashriqiyyah 2.4. Others
a. Dioscorides
b. Abu’l-Barakat al-Baghdadi
3. Sources of Geographical Information
3.1. Biruni, K. al-tafliim li-sindcat al-tanjim 3.2. Moses b. Kepha
3.3. Jacob of Edessa (?)
3.4. Ptolemy, Almagest
4. Summary of Sources 5. Conclusion
1 The present article is an extended version of a paper presented at Symposium Syriacum VIII, held at the University of Sydney, 26th June-1st July 2000. A summary version of the paper is due to appear in the proceedings of that symposium.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

1. Introduction
It is no secret that in composing his works the Syriac Orthodox (“Jacobite”)
Christian prelate and polymath Gregory Abu’l-Faraj Barhebraeus (Bar cEbray3,
Ibn al-cIbri, 1225/6-1286)2 made extensive use of the works of earlier authors, so that the identification of the sources used and the examination of the manner in
which he uses these sources are an indispensable part of our efforts to reach a better understanding and appreciation of his works. At the same time he was no mere slavish copier of the works of others but showed some skill in creating out of materials taken from different sources a seamless new whole, with the result
that it is often difficult for us to disentangle the different sources used in his works and in our attempt to identify these sources we frequently need to examine
the text not at the level of whole passages and sentences but at the level of single phrases and words.
This applies also to his major theological work, the Mndrat qudshe, or Candelabrum of the Sanctuary (= Cand.), which deals with the whole spectrum
of dogmatic theology in twelve parts called “bases” (shetesefundamenta) and is
the most systematic pre-modern account we have of Syriac Orthodox theology.3
2 On Barhebraeus (= BH) and his works in general, see, e.g., Assemani, BO 11.244-321; Wright (1894) 265-281; Duval (1907) 408-411 et passim; Baumstark, GSL 312-320; Graf, GCAL 11.275-281; Barsaum, Lu’lu3 411-430; Brock (1997) 75-80 et passim. For a bibliography
covering publications up to 1986, see Fiey (1986). For some additions to the bio-bibliographical works listed in Fiey. op. cit. 280-284, seeTakahashi (2001) n.l.
3 For the editions of the individual bases of the work, see Fiey (1986) 289f. – The end of Base IV (list of heresies, corr. ed. ?i^ek 447-458), which is not included in Khoury’s edition of that base may be found in F. Nau, Documents pour servir a VHistoire de Pl^glise Nestorienne, FO
13 (fasc. 2) 111-326, Paris 1916, here 252-265. – Further excerpts of the work may be found at: J. E. Manna, Morceaux choisis de littirature arameenne, Mosul 1901,11.358-361, 370-372 (preface and Base II.3.1.2, corr. ed. BakoS 21.6-24.ult., 91.1 l-93.ult.); R. Gottheil, “A Synopsis of Greek Philosophy by Bar cEbhraya”, Hebrcdca 3 (1886/7) 249-254 (Base II, intro.); R.
Gottheil, “Contributions to the History of Geography, II. Candelabrum sanctorum and Liber radiorium [sic] of Gregorius Bar cEbhraya”, Hebrcdca 7 (1890) 39-55, here 40-44, 47-52 (II.3.3.1, corr. ed. BakoS 154-158, 163-165); R. Gottheil, “On a Syriac Geographical Chart”,
PAOS, 1888, p.290ff. and J.-B. Chabot, “Notice sur une mappemonde syrienne du XHIe siecle, notes comptementaires publiees d’apres les observations de MM. R. Gottheil et C.-A.
Nallino”, Bulletin de geographie historique et descriptive 1898.31-43, here 40-43 (diagram, corr. ed. BakoS 159-164); R. Gottheil, A List of Plants and their Properties from the Mendrath
KuctSe of Gregorius Bar cEbhrdyd, Berlin 1886 (II.3.3.2, corr. ed. Bako? 166-193; ms. B); corrections and additions to the foregoing in id, “Berichtungen und Zusatze zu ‘A List of Plants*”, ZDMG 43 (1889) 121-127; Binyamin Haddad, “Fasl fi al-nabatat min kitab ‘Manarat al-aqdas’ li-Ibn al-cIbri (1226-1286 m.)”. Journal of the Iraqi Academy, Syriac Corporation 6 (198112) 407-515 (Arabic translation with commentary, corr. ed. BakoS 171-193); H.J. Drossaart Lulofs-E.LJ. Poortman, Nicolaus Damascenus. De plantis. Five Translations, Amsterdam
Oxford-New York 1989, 56-63 (corr. ed. BakoS 166-171); J. BakoS, “Die Einleitung zur Psychologie des Barhebraeus im achten Fundamente seines Buches der *Leuchte des Heiligtums'”, ArOr 10 (1938) 121-127 (Base VIII, intro.);. excerpts in Slovak from Base II also in J. Bakos\ “Uryvok z gr^ckej filosofie v sjrskej literature z doby mongolskej”, Prudy 9
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

In comparison with the historical and exegetical works of the same author, this important work had received relatively little attention from scholars until the end
of the 19th century, being known to European scholars largely only through a
(1925) 324-328, and id., “Uryvky z theol.-encykloped. spisu Sviecefi svatyfi od sjrkeho spisovatela Grigora Abul-faradza Barhebrea”, Viera a veda 1 (1930) 105-113 (references taken from Segert [1965] 19). – To the studies on the work listed at Fiey, op. cit. 289-291, 297f., one might add: M. Jugie, Theologia dogmatica Christianorum orientalium ab Ecclesia
Catholica dissidentiumV, Paris 1935,497-9, 518 et passim; P. Kawerau, Das Christenheitdes Ostens, Stuttgart 1972, 63-82 (with an analysis of Bases I-VIII, X); J. BakoS, “Spis Sviecefi svat^fi”, Bratislava (tasopis Udenej spol’odnosti Safartkovej) 2 (1928) 189-195; id., “Quellenanalyse der Zoologie aus dem Hexaemeron des MoSe bar Kep(h)a”, ArOr 6 (1934) 267-271, here 269f.; B. Behnam, “Al-fiziya3 wa-l-kimiya3 fi ‘l-mu3allafat al-suryaniyyah”, Journal of the Syriac Academy 1 (1975) 5-46; Drossaart Lulofs, “Aristotle, Bar Hebraeus and Nicolaus Damascenus on Animals”, in A. Gotthelf (ed,), Aristotle on Nature and Living Things (Festschr. D.M. Balme), Pittsburgh-Bristol 1985, 345-357; S.P. Brock, “Some Syriac
Excerpts from Greek Collections of Pagan Prophecies”, VigChr 38 (1984) 77-90 (Bases IIMV); M.J. Panicker, Christology of Bar Ebraya (Yuhanon Gregorius Abu’l Faraj), excerpta ex dissertatione ad doctoratum in Facilitate scientiarum ecclesiasticarum orientalium, Rome: PIOS,
1995 (Bases IIMV); W. Hage, “Ecumenical Aspects of Barhebraeus’ Christology”, Harp 4 (1991) 103-109 (Base IV); K. Pingg^ra, “Christologischer Konsens und kirchliche Identitat. Beobachtungen zum Werk des Gregor Bar Hebraeus”, Ostkirchliche Studien 49 (2000) 3-30,
here 6-14 (Base IV); W. de Vries, Sakramententheologie bei den syrischen Monophysiten, OCA 125, Rome 1940, passim, id. “Zum Kirchenbegriff der spateren Jakobiten”, OCP 19 (1953) 128-177, passim, and id. Der Kirchenbegriff der von Rom getrennten Syrer, OCA 145,
Rome 1953, passim (Base VI); O. Braun, Moses bar Kepha und sein Buch von der Seele, Freiburg 1891, pp. 133-160 passim (Base VIII); J. Reller, “Iwannis von Dara, Mose Bar Kepha und Bar Hebraus iiber die Seele, traditionsgeschichtlich untersucht”, in G.J. Reinink & A.C. Klugkist (ed.), After Bardaisan (Festschr. H.J.W. Drijvers), OLA 89, Louvain 1999, 253-268, here 264-268 (Base VIII); H. Poirier, “Bar Hebraeus sur le libre arbitre”, OC 70
(1986) 23-36 (Base IX); M. Aubineau, “Barhebraeus, Candelabre du sanctuaire XI, 5, 2: une citation identified de Jean Chrysostome”, JTS 85 (1984) 480-482; Kh. cAlwan, “Bacd masadir
Ibn al-cIbri al-suryaniyyah fi ‘Manarat al-aqdas”\ Dirasatfial-addb wa4-culum aNnsdniyyah (Universite Libanaise, Beirut) 15 (1988) 117-134 (Base XII). – To the manuscripts of the work listed at Baumstark, GSL 315 n.l, one might add: olim Cizre (1275, see Barsaum, Lu’lu* 416);
Charfeh, coll. Rahmani 140 (olim 326, 13/14th c. and 1892, catal. Sony [ 1993] 43, cf. Sherwood [1957] 102); Florence, Bibl. Naz. Centr., 111/54 (1387/8); London, private collection (1405, olim al-Hasakah, cf. Barsaum, Lu’lu* 416 n.l); Jerusalem, St. Mark’s 135 Dolabani (= 6* Baumstark, 1590); (olim) Istanbul, coll. Petrus Fehim 2 (1590, catal. Dolabani [1994c] p.6); Dair al-Zacfaran 11/100 (1674, with parallel Arab, tr., catal. Dolabani [1994b] p. II/9-17; cf.
Barsaum, LuHu” 416 n.l); Pampakuda, coll. Konat 4 van der Ploeg (1866); Charfeh, coll. Rahmani 141 (olim 609, 1890); Brit. Lib. Or 9373; Mingana syr. 208A (1892); Harvard, syr. 68 Goshen-Gottstein (1893); Syr. Orth. Patriarchate 4/2 Dolabani (1897); Cairo, Syr. Orth. 6
(1912, information of Dr. S. P. Brock); excerpts: Vat. syr. 52/2 (1537, on baptism); Florence, Laur. or. 437, 65r-71r (olim Palat. 44 Assemani, Base VI.2.3, on baptism); Vat. syr. 411, p. 28ff. (on baptism, with Latin tr.); Berlin, Sachau 93, 24v (224 catal. Sachau, 1802); Paris syr.
346 (from Base II, see Nau [1910] and Schlimme [1977] 863-879); Jerusalem, St. Mark’s 152/3 Dolabani (1869); Mingana syr. 27 (1641/2, Base III and part of IV); 89A (1715,
geography); 405B (ca. 1400, parts of Bases III and IV); 418 (ca. 1880, Bases I-V); 5221 (ca. 1780); 595 (1717, colophon only); 581C (1897, unidentified by Mingana, corr. Base II, ed. Bako? p. 199-208); Beirut, USJ syr. 46/4 (19th c, 4 pages); Manchester, John Rylands syr. 61
(15-17th a). – To the manuscripts of the Arabic version listed at Graf, GCAL 11.276, add: D. al-Zacfaran 11/100 Dolabani (1674, see above); Baghdad, Mar Antonius syr. 91 (1720); Syr.
Orth. Patriarchate 4/2 Dolabani (1897); 4/3 (1851); (olim) Aleppo, coll. Nacum cAzar (18th c, catal. Dolabani [1994c] p.290).
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

few excerpts in J.S. Assemani’s Bibliotheca Orientalis and an article by Eugene Bore published in the Journal Asiatique in 1834. The work of editing and publishing the various parts of this work, which began towards the end of the 19th century, was at last completed in 1985. The work as a whole is also available now in a
single volume published by Metropolitan Y.Y. ?i$ek in 1997, and there also exists an edition of a modern Arabic translation by Metropolitan D.B. Jijawl which appeared in print in 1996. With the whole work thus available in print time
now seems ripe for a closer examination of the various parts of the text; for while the editors of the different parts of this work have usually given us some general indications of the sources used by Barhebraeus, little has been done so far in the
way of identifying more precisely the sources of each particular passage.
As a small contribution to this work of identifying the sources, I propose to examine here those passages in the Second Base of Cand. where Barhebraeus
deals with subject matters which go back ultimately to Aristotle’s Meteorologica. These passages are to be found in Sections (nishe) 2 and 4 (on the elements
“earth” and “air”) of Base II, Chapter 3, Part 1, the part in which the author deals with things created by God on the First Day of Creation.4 As is well known, Aristotle’s Meteorologica covers not only meteorology proper, but also touches
on such matters as mineralogy and mathematical geography. Within the two sections that I propose to discuss, the first half of Section 2 and the greater part of Section 4 deal, respectively, with mineralogy and meteorology and the same sources are used in these two parts. The sources used, on the other hand, in the
latter half of Section 2, which deals with mathematical geography, are quite different from those used in the first half of the same section and in Section 4. I
begin therefore with an enumeration of the sources used by Barhebraeus for his
information on mineralogy and meteorology, and go on to an enumeration of the
sources for geography. This will then be followed by a summary presentation of the sources which have been identified so far.
There are several aims which one might hope to achieve through a study such as this. Such a study ought in the first place to contribute to a better understanding of the text of Barhebraeus’ work. – Examples will be given below which illustrate
how the comparison with the sources allows us occasionally to improve the text of the work under examination and more frequently to improve the translation. –
In those cases where the immediate source used by Barhebraeus is in a language )ther than Syriac (i.e. Arabic), the study may also be of value for Syriac exicography, since the comparison with the source will tell us which Syriac vord Barhebraeus considered to be equivalent to which word in the language of
Ed. BakoS (1930-33) 82-104, 109-130; ed. ?icek (1997), 65-80, 84-98. – Unless otherwise indicated, the page and lines references below are to BakoS’s edition.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

the source.
Secondly, we might also hope to gain some information on the work used as the source. In some cases, the text of Barhebraeus’ work may provide support for
certain variant readings in the source text. In those cases where the work used as
the source is only preserved in an imperfect manner, the study of the kind undertaken
here may contribute to the reconstruction of the text of the source. More generally,
an examination of the manner in which Barhebraeus handles his sources ought to tell us about the value of Barhebraeus’ text for the reconstruction of works which
were used by him but have since been lost, and the way in which we might go about reconstructing such lost texts on the basis of Barhebraeus’ text.
Thirdly, such a study ought tell us more generally about the method used by Barhebraeus for composing his works, about the kind of works he preferred as his sources and the way in which he then handles these sources.
Concerning this third aim, one point needs to be made from the outset, namely that there are two quite distinct types of passages in Cand. It was already noted by Koffler in his study of Base X (de resurrectione) published in 1932 that
the first half of that base (chap. 1 and part of chap. 2) was devoted to philosophical discussions with little in its contents which was specifically Christian, while the
second half (part of chap. 2, and chap. 3) was dogmatic and full of quotations from the Scripture and the Fathers. “After a long search”, as he tells us, Koffler succeeded in identifying as the principal source of the first half the Muhassal afkdr al-mutaqaddimln wa-l-mutaJakhkhirin of Fakhr al-Din al-Razi.5 Similarly,
in his study of Base IV (de incarnatione), Khoury noted that that base could be divided into an “apologetic and rational” part and a “theological and dogmatic” part,6 and that in the apologetic part recourse is frequently made to works of
Islamic philosophers, including, in particular, the Muhassal? The subject matter of Base II did not allow such a straightforward bipartite division as found in
Bases IV and X, but here too there is a clear difference between the “dogmatic” and “philosophical/scientific” passages. The passages studied below all belong to
the latter category.
2. Sources of Mineralogy and Meteorology 2.1. Nicolaus Damascenus
In his edition of the first two bases of Cand., BakoS was more thorough than
5 Koffler( 1932) 202-207.
6 Khoury (1965) 8-10. The distinction is more clearly made in his unpublished dissertation (Khoury [1950] 1.27 et passim).
7 Khoury (1965) 9,41, 111, 246-249; id. (1950) 1.34.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

most editors of the subsequent bases in naming parallels and possible sources. The information available to Bakos seventy years ago, however, was more limited
than what we have available today, so that in many cases he was only able to
identify indirect sources and parallels rather than the immediate sources used by Barhebraeus.
Much of the material in Base II of Cand. goes back ultimately to Aristotle and for much of the discussion of mineralogy and meteorology this ultimate source is Aristotle’s Meteorologica (= Arist. Mete.). This was recognised by
Bakos, who frequently provides extensive quotations from Mete, and other works of Aristotle in the footnotes of his edition. When we examine the wording of
these “Aristotelian” passages more closely, however, it becomes clear that Barhebraeus cannot be dependent directly on Aristotle, but must have used some work containing an abridgement or a commentary of Aristotle’s works.
This intermediate source has since been identified, largely through the work
of H.J. Drossaart Lulofs,8 as the Compendium of Aristotelian Philosophy (rcepi tffc’ AptoTOTeAflxx; ^iXoao^iaq) by the 1st c. B.C. historian-philosopher Nicolaus
Damascenus (= NIc). This compendium is almost completely lost in the original Greek. The Syriac version, which may be by Hunain b. Ishaq,9 survives as one of
the texts preserved in ms. Cambridge, University Library Gg 2.14.10 This manuscript has unfortunately been badly damaged, especially towards the end where Nicolaus’
Compendium is found and has in addition been rebound in the wrong order, so that the 38 folios which contain Nicolaus’ Compendium (fols. 328-350, 365-371, 378-385) need to be rearranged as follows:11
pp. 1-2: fol. 328rv; 3-4: 369rv; 5-6: 329rv; 7-8: 330rv; 9-10: 331rv; 11-12: 332rv; 13-14: 333rv; 15-16: 334rv; 17-18: 370rv; 19-20: 335rv; 21-22: 336rv; 23-24: 337rv;
25-26: 338rv; 27-28: 339rv; 29-30: 340rv; 31-32: 341rv; 33-34: 343rv; 35-36: 342rv: 37-38: 367rv: 39-40: 368rv: 41-42: 344rv; 43-44: 345rv; 45-46: 346rv; 47-48: 347rv; 49-50: 348rv; 51-52: 349rv; 53-54: 365rv; 55-56: 366vr; 57-58: 37lrv; 59-60: 350rv; 61-62: 383vr; 63-64: 382rv; 65-66: 378rv; 67-68: 379rv; 69-70: 380rv; 71-72: 381rv;
8 Drossaart Lulofs (1985) 351-356. Drossaart Lulofs-Poortman (1989) 24-34. 9 See Takahashi (2002) 193f.
10 For a description of the manuscript as a whole, see Wright-Cook (1901) 1008-1023 and Drossaart Lulofs (1965) 45-57. Of the other texts in the manuscript, the fragment of Euclid has
been edited by Furlani (1924); the fragment of Theophrastus, Meteorology by Wagner-Steinmetz (1964) and again by Daiber (1992) 176-188.
11 In what follows, the texts of Nic. will be cited according to the “pages” as given here. – For the method used by Drossaart Lulofs for restoring the original order of the folios, see Drossaart Lulofs (1965) 45-57 and Drossaart Lulofs-Poortman (1989) 19f. Through the good offices of
Prof. H. Daiber, I was able to use for the study reported here the photostats as rearranged by
Drossaart Lulofs. I agree with Drossaart Lulofs* arrangement except on the placement of fol.
383 (fragment on plants) and on the direction of fols. 366 and 385 (= p. 55f? 75f.) whose reversal Drossaart Lulofs seems not to have detected.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

73-74: 384rv; 75-76: 385vr.
The manuscript, even in its original state, contained not the whole text of the Syriac version of the Compendium but only excerpts from it and as a result some parts of the Compendium are very imperfectly represented. The parts on
meteorology (corr. Arist. Mete. I-III) and mineralogy,12 however, have fared much better than the other parts at the hand of the excerptor and make up 52
pages out of the total of 76 which survive in the Cambridge manuscript.13 We have, therefore, ample material here for comparison with the text of Cand. and
we find that numerous passages in Cand. are indeed copied from this Compendium, often with only minor alterations such as that of word order.
Ancient theories on earthquakes: Cand. 129.1-9
As an illustration of the way in which Barhebraeus uses Nic. as his source, we might take here the passages of Cand. reporting the theories of Anaxagoras, Democritus and Anaximenes concerning the causes of earthquakes.
f<=acDT* r<fti\ vyrC r<Iao .? vCi*\kon rCicnW a roA\a nl^’VrCi \i*j\< ^ oorC-SnV/n\ rOr<
rC^-VrCi rCXkJo r<C^.a\ r*z3Jtnv? x^o , tl.-mA\?r? rCw.4!^! ^i-kK ^ami r*’teh~ mia foAxioase^A p9 dt< . ^Uooo rC^\-*? jo t<*i\, .ocj^i ^srrC auat<-n*fn\t<Jv< . ^ni
. ^t-vw rOa^rCi rO^a^ . Aft io , >N WflnAoj [o?t<vi2^^t<jr< Bakos et ?i$ek: M-sa^a^rOK VP, Nic. II Bakos: ^Ka ?icek II ?V?~: pa V, ?i$ek II faAvm.m\ ?i$ek II rcia ^i^ek. Nic, ms. Paris 346:
rci BakoS II oa*ArCxr\’rt?tn\vClT< V. ?i$ek]
(1) Anaksagoras den amar d-ara patya w-cal-hade mettacna men mayya ak tasse
d-dahba d-mettacnin men mayya w-kad metqapsin shaktin. w-mettul d-kullah arca pahhihta y star appeh da-rsipan, en w-kad mnata men a?ar napla bah w-la meshkha d-tessaq mettul rsiput appeh, mzica wa-mnida lah. (2) Dimoqratis den amar d-cubbeh d-arca mien, w-kad sagen mayya d-metra d-nahtin l-cammuqutah w-la caren l-hon
cubbeh d-ara, methabsin, w-kad mezdarbin, zawca w-nyada d-arca Labdin. (3) Anaksimanis den amar d-rishay ture kad men metra meshtren, aw men yabbishuta metparkkin w-naplin, zawca d-arca cabdin.
(la) Anaxagoras says: (b) The earth is flat and for this reason is borne by water [sicf4 (c) like gold leaves which are borne by water and, when drawn together,
12 The mineralogical part of the Compendium appears to be based to a large extent on the mineralogical works of Theophrastus (see Takahashi [2002]).
13 A few excerpts from the meteorological part of Nic. are also found together with excerpts from BH Cand. and Moses b. Kepha’s Hexaemeron Commentary in ms. Paris. Bibl. Nat. syr. 346 (see Nau [1910] 228. 230f., Schlimme [1977] 863-879).
14 This should, of course, read “air”. The fact that the reading “air” is retained in Nic. while the manuscripts of Cand, agree in reading “water”, suggests that the error here is due to carelessness
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

sink, and (d) because the whole of the earth is porous, (e) except for its surface which is solid, (f) if and when a part of the air falls into (the earth), (g) and cannot rise because of the solidity of its surface, (h) it moves and shakes it.
(2) Bemocritiis says: (a) The bowels of the earth are hill [of water] (b) and when the rain water which descends to its depth increases (c) and the bowels of the
earth cannot contain it, (d) (the water)hecomes compressed (e) and as it is squeezed, (f) it causes the movement and shaking of Ihe earth.
(3) Anaximenes says: (a) When mountain tops are loosened by rain (b) or are
broken up by dryness, (c) and fall, (d) they cause ihfc movement of the earth.
Nic. 35.20-31, 36.13-20,21-23, 30 (< Arist. Mete. 365a 19-25, 365b 1-6, 365b 6-12)15: vyr< \ \z<t< if i^\Ao3 rC^^rC / rCiAiai A^* “taorC jjaaa\x^o prx axiia^cL^rOK 20 t<m\ vyi<o . Kik\\r ^t/nftnAoj -z^i . ^smjsa Iy\V*\^m^ t<I? A^. rj^tu^ai t<A^
‘Sax<1 t<Aa . KtM\r rtluprp A? ^.gnnftnAu ^ieo At<i _sirfo . i<I? A^. /rtsa3\Tt c<saam 25/)\so \ rCui?acn Aa*A IakA idftK . ^i<i< t<t\\Lw A\? . r^Jkl AuiA\A
faa^aioaAurC rCuxiiA* A^. AuuhA* Auiatii jto r<V-i?k . A^A / Iat<A aoaJki r^drt xa. . It<**199a r<wpo . ^oanAta&u^ Vi>A\ A^Al .^_flMh?re *. t<ylirw i<A 30/?k \ i<JkuA\ T<1^\soTt f<? . rtA? rClso retire* diA=^i^-> . fefef< ^9 /oa^rC-Hocmj? 13 . . . . t<^.1t<A
fOaa r<ico lOdeo* / ^ . r^irOi rCxLia r0^a\ ^kkL rA=9’H7p9 . l uAi*rp i<^^f<i
rC^&cu p9 AtC* rte^rC . dnA v /[d>] i-kKj Aai \ aluAtm i<? <kb ^SoK f*nimTnm\ fOrC 21-Kafc vAJhi rtikita&Ax=3 20/tOKrt i<Wi . i<k*taea^i
pa ?k df< rCi\^9 pa ^^suos x^ dv< rAco . ^0cnA vKii /<uaA&i cp rClc^i c<ac?i? / /. ?Lut^? rO?s^9 toA i<icn\\in . c<^^f<i ?<^a\ ^ni . rk^A^io9 r<^^r<i / t<kcuL?E**
. ^adcn ?<i\^9 ^awA^i fOs^psxi 30 [35.20 xdm\k\o: ^imirdia ms. II 27 ka^v ms. II 29 toAuuk roA^. ms.]
(1) Anaksagoros d-men Qlazomeni emar d-cal d-patya arca mettacna men anar, ak tarpe da-prism cal mayya w-mettacnin menhon, hanon d-kad metqapsin shaktln, w-ak tasse d-dahba da-rmen cal mayya, hanon d-ap henon kad netqapsun bah ba-dmuta shaktin. w-la 1-appay ltaht natca, mettul d-mettacna men a3ar, apla 1-appay lcel metdahya,
mettul d-yaqqirta iteh, w-la mse anar d-saggi nedheh. w-naqpa 1-mellteh da-1 bar men kyana tehwe arca ba-msacta d-arca. w-amar d-kullah arca tehwe pahhihta, ella mnata dileh cellayta d-bah camrinan rslpa, mettul d-metlabdin hroreh men metra. ma den lam d-napla mnata men a3ar bah, kad rahta d-tessaq 1-appay Tel, cabra man hroreh da-ltaht,
cal d-pahhiha itaw gabbah tahtaya; kad la d6n meshkha da-b-hanon da-lcel tecbar mettul rsiputhon, mzica wa-mmda l-arca. … (2) Dimoqratis den amar d-cubbeh d-arca mayya mien, ma den d-metre nehwon, nahtin ap mayya d-metra l-cammuqutah, w-kad
sagen mayya w-la caren l-hon cubbeh d-arca, methabsin, w-kad mezdarbm, cabdln
zawca wa-nyada d-arca. amar den d-hawya hade w-ma d-yabbishta tehwe arca. kad metyabsha lam ger natpa lwateh 1-rattibuta b-reggta meddem. haw ma den d-metntep,
on BH’s part.
15 Of the intervening passages, Nic. 35.31-36.7, 11-13; 36.20-21; and 36.30-37.4 are devoted to the refutation of the respective theories. These are omitted in Cand. In BH But., where these same passages of Nic. are used again, BH first gives us the theories of Anaxagoras, Democritus
and Anaximenes at But. Min. 2.1.1-3 and then refutes them together in 2.1.4. – The passages at Nic. 36.7-11 and 36.24-30 are scholia which have crept into the text.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

kad napel b-cubbeh, mzlc lah, akma d-men batar nuppasa d-tepshurta, kad napla ruha b-shalpuhta, rtita hawya. … (3) Anaksimenis amar d-rishe d-ture – hanaw qoldno qare
l-hon – halen kad naplin, aw kad meshtren men metra, aw kad men yabbishuta d-arca metparkkin, cabdm zawca d-arca. mettul-hade lam b-zabne metranaye wa-b-zabne da
glizut metra ha wen.
(la) Anaxagoras of Clazomenae ??id” (b) Because the eailh is^flaliLis borjie^by air (c)
like leaves which are spread on water and are_home_hy_ii – these, when they are drawn
together, sink – and like_gokLleayes16 which are placed on water – these, too, when they are drawnJDgelher, sink in the same way. (The earth) does not incline downwards,
because it is borne by air, nor is it driven upwards, because it is heavy and air cannot
push it much. It follows from (Anaxagoras’) word that the earth is in the middle of the
universe [by means] beyond nature.17 (d) He says that the^whole_QfJhe earth is^ximus,
(e) but its upper part, on which we live, i&_solid, because its openings are condensed by rain, (f) “When?a parLpf Jh&_air fallsLinto (the earth)”, [he says] “as it strives to rise upwards, it passes through the openings which are [in the part] below because its lower side is porous, (g) As, however, it cannot pass upwards through those (openings) above
hecausejof their solidity, (h) it moves and shakes the earth.” …
(2a) Democritusjsays: The_bowels-ofJhe earth are full of water, (b) When rains occur, the.rainjwaterjiescendsJto_itsjkpth; and when the water increases (c) andJhe_howelsjQf the_earth xannotxontain_it, (d) iLhecomesLConipffiss^i (e) ancLas iLi& squeezed, (f) it
causesJhe_movemenLandLshaking_of Jhe_earth. He says that this occurs also when the earth is dry. “For as it becomes” [he says] “(the earth) attracts moisture towards itself
with a certain yearning, and that thing which is attracted, as it falls into the bowels of (the earth), moves (the earth),” just as after the discharge of urine, too, when wind falls into the bladder, a trembling occurs.18…
(3a) Anaximenes says: When_lh? tops of mountains – he calls them ‘kolonof – (c) fall,
(a) either when looseneilhy_rain, (b) or whenJbroken up by the dryness of the earth, (d) they caus&lh? movemenLof ihfcjeaith. For this reason, movements of the earth occur in rainy seasons and in seasons of absence of rain.
We see here how Barhebraeus shortens the passage in his source by omitting what he considered unnecessary for his purpose. In the theory of Anaxagoras, for
example, he retains only one of the two examples of things floating on water19 and omits altogether the sentence in Nic. describing how according to Anaxagoras
the earth remains suspended in air, which is not immediately relevant to the
discussion of how earthquakes are caused. Similarly, he omits the latter parts of theories of Democritus and Anaximenes. We also see how Barhebraeus sometimes
16 Cf. Arist. Mete. 348a 8-10 (in discussion of how hail can be suspended in air): oxmep kcu em xox> uooroc, yf\ Kai xpvodc, 8ia uitcpouepeiav itoXXdicic, emT&eoixnv.
17 This first part of the passage of Nic. dealing with Anaxagoras* theory has no counterpart in Arist. Mete., but, as noted by Bako? in connection with the passage of Cand.\ is based on Arist. Decaelo 11.13.
18 The comparison here with trembling after urination is taken from a later passage at Arist. 366b 19ff.
19 At But. Min. 2.1.1, BH retains the other example, that of the leaf.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

simplifies the wording of his source, as he does, for example, in (le) and (2b), and occasionally substitutes different words, as he does in (lg) by replacing the verb “pass upwards” (cbar lcel) by “rise” (sleq).
On the whole, however, he remains faithful to the wording of his source and there is little in the above passage of Cand. which is not taken from the passages of Nic. used as its source, as we may see from the high proportion of underlined
words in the translation of the passage of Cand. The accounts of the theories of Democritus and Anaximenes are copied almost verbatim from Nic. and in clauses
(2c-f), for example, we see that every word in the passage of Cand. matches that in Nic. and the word order, too, is the same, except for the transfer of the verb cdbdin to the end of the sentence, an alteration he also makes in (3d). One major alteration he makes in Anaximenes’ theory is the transfer of the verb ndplin [(3c)]; this serves to make the sense clearer, since in Nic. the two verbs tneshtren
and metparkkin appear at first sight to be parallel, rather than subordinate, to ndplin.20
Restoration of text ofNicolaus (i): Cand. 123.5-8
The text of Nic. we have in the Cambridge manuscript, as has been said, is incomplete. Occasionally, Cand. allows us to restore lost passages of Nic.
Cand. 123.5-8:
. Kaoss rCcKD t<rt pp c<jrtai< ya\ Kynai <rto?f< yA (Oiui<o (2) . -W- ‘time* . rcA^rAeo f<!b? ri?i fC^-tatl* pa %niu i^kualwi (3) rtlk^cn j*p x<ieoi\s9Q
(1) Putagoriqaye den amrin d-urha itaw hana d-had men kawkabe d-npal(w) b-yaqdann haw d-amir cal Paton. (2) wa-hrane lam emar(w) da-b-hade lam urha ba-zban rade wa shemsha. w-mettul-hade yeqdat hi dukkta. (3) w-da-1-matla yattlr men d-la-shrara damyan
melle halen galya.
(1) But the Pythagoreans say that this [i.e. Milky Way] is the path of one of the stars which fell in the conflagration which is said of Phaethon. (2) Others have
said that the sun once used to travel along this path, and for this reason the region was burned. (3) It is clear that these words resemble a fable more than the truth.
This passage clearly derives from the following passage of Aristotle’s Meteorologica.
Arist. Mete. 345a 13-19: xd>v nev ouv KaAounEvcov nuOayopeicov tyctoi xiveq 66ov eivai xcruxnv oi ubv xg>v eiaceoovxcDv xivoq doxepoov, Korea xrjv Xeyo^vrtv erii OaeGovxoq <t>0opdv, oi oe xov fjXtov xouxov xov kukXov <|>epeo6at icoxe 0aaiv. olov
oiv 8iaKeKa\)a0ai xov xorcov xoi>xov f\ xi aXkjo 7cercov6evai noBoq imb xffe tyopaq
20 Cf. Arist. Mete. 365b 6-8: Ava^i^evr^ oe tyt)piv ppexojievriv xr\v yfjv icai ^ipaivo^ievriv priyvvoOai, kqi imo xovxcov tg5v dicopprjyv^evcov koXcovgdv e\ininx6vxm oeieo0ai.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

the greco-syriac and arabic sources of barhebraeus’ mineralogy
outcov. dxonov 6e xo \ix\ cruwoeiv …
(1) Some of the so-called Pythagoreans sa^LthaLthis [i.e. Milky Way] i&Jhe_path of one of the Stars which fell in the destruction which is said of Phaethnn; (2) others say that the sun once moved (along) this circle. As a result ibis rjegiQn_was_hurned or suffered
in some other way from their movement. (3) But it is absurd not to realise …
In the text of Nic. as we have it in the Cambridge manuscript, however, we find only the first of the two Pythagorean theories.
Nic. 13.1 1-13: Iaj? Kai^ pa Tun jtoakuK KjitoKi Kiak l*=ut ^XiaiK rCtX^joLa*
Putagraye amrin cal shbil tebna d-urha Itaw d-had men kawkabe da-npal b-yaqdana haw d-amlr cal Paton.
Pythagoreans say concerning the Milkv Wav thaLiLi&ihe_4)ath of one of the stars.which fell in the conflagration which is said of Phaelhon.
In view of the similarity of the wording between this sentence and the first part of
the passage of Cand. given above, it seems reasonable to assume that this sentence was originally followed by something closely resembling the remaining part of
the passage in Cand.
RestorationoftextofNicolaus(\\): Cand. 122.12-123.5
Of some interest is also the passage immediately preceding in Cand., where the Aristotelian view that the Milky Way is a product of the smoky exhalation
(anathumtasis, letrd) in the atmosphere is refuted.
Cand. 122.12-123.5:
-Vf> o\ Kan c*-*en=3 . jAj.? rO\ur< ^_o*ft> ^_gralat pa \Au mi\\n\mrtK yi^m tSka mImool v<\-* rOco VyrCi rCiuA\ rC-O^i K^koati ^tes? (1) . coki^’Vk cCi^ioa iflk im\\ 11 . rOco ckd rCcKQ it<?<9 ?ak c\vCa (t<2) . cmd t<jjdo4CoAo9 r<\ . t<*U^^ f2k? VyrCv f<l??i
cai99 aco y?\i t<Vqod rOrx* (=i2) . rrttmnn f<ka\k?<s rCuJbom f<m\mim a\ rCi&aK
w-kad b-kul-meddem Aristotlis yattlr men kulhon hrane aslah, b-hade hda law saggi hayltanlta methazya tar^Iteh, (1) b-hay d-kuttara d-cetra tennanaya d-ak hana d-la shuhlap zabne d-ak halen nagglre la methaymnana w. (2a) w-ellu tub b-a’ar wa hu hana, aykanna law mshahlpa methze b-atrawata mshahlpe, (2b) w-ha sahra d-ram u meneh mshahlpalt methze.
Although Aristotle surpassed all those others in everything, on this one [point] his opinion seems not to be very sound. (1) For the persistence of such smoky exhalation
without alteration for such long periods is incredible. (2a) Furthermore, if (the Milky Way) were in the air [i.e. atmosphere], how is it that it appears without
differentiation in different regions, (2b) while the moon which is [supposedly] higher than it appears differently.
In the Cambridge manuscript of Nic, we find the following passage which is
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

marked off by the word nuhhdrd as a scholion.
Nic. 14.19-22 [scholion]:
. jisaae ^f<rd tCxm 21 / ^jAw \\~*9 . rakifoA* rCaAi&A n>im?n\ ^jflasafo rdcu^^aXirC * rC-tcocu t<Y* fM&k . cn\ ?*^*-? xdsacAoo acp tia 22/. rCL=al\ \rrr Au^orC QoufiA^f<l^.iaKiAuKi
nuhhara: nashin gayora hamsm la-mhawwayu la-ktaba d-pahhayata, mettul d-tannan hashsha d-a?ar shabbah d-itaw galaksfs awket shbil tebna, kad hu mtomaya meshkah
leh, akma d-la meshtahlap.
Comment: Some have tried to show the book of Meteorology to be spurious, because
here (Aristotle) thought that the ‘galaxias’ – i.e. the Milky Way – was an affection [hashsha = pdthos] of air, while [at the same time] he finds it to be eternal, as in
something which does not change.
Most of these scholia in the Cambridge manuscript may be shown to be based on the commentary on Aristotle’s Meteorologica by the 6th c. Neo-Platonist,
Olympiodorus (= Olymp. in Mete.). I have had the occasion to argue elsewhere that what has come down to us as the Arabic version of Olympiodorus’ commentary (= Olymp. arab.)21 consists of a mixture of Nicolean and Olympiodorean materials
and that it is in fact a reworked Arabic version of the original Syriac text from which our text in the Cambridge manuscript has been excerpted.22
The relationship between the various texts in question may be presented as follows:
Arist. Mete.
Nicolaus K Olymp., in Mete.
\/ Nic.syr./Olymp.syr.
BH, Card. “Olymp.” arab.
BH, But.
The above scholion as we have it here in the Cambridge manuscript does not give
21 Preserved in ms. Tashkent, Al-Biruni Inst. of Oriental Studies 2385, fols. 347r-368r (dated 1075 A.H. = 1664/5 A.D.; see Semyonov et al. [1952-87] V. 237f.); translated, according to
the heading in this manuscript, by Hunain b. Ishaq and revised by Ishaq b. Hunain; published by Badawl (1971) 83-190. – This Tashkent manuscript is one containing a great number of
treatises by Ibn Sma, Yahya b. cAdi, al-Farabi, Ibn Bajja, Alexander of Aphrodisias and Themistius (see the total of 93 entries, mostly in vols. Ill and V, in the catalogue of Semyonov et al., indexed together at vol. X.685f. and XI.439). The text of Olympiodorus is immediately followed by the Arabic version of Nicolaus, De plantis (fols. 368r-373r; the manucript designated
q in Drossaart Lulofs-Poortman [ 1989]). 22 See Takahashi (2002).
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

us the concrete arguments used for refuting Aristotle’s view, but what are basically the same arguments as those given in Cand. are found in more complete forms in
both Olymp. in Mete, and in Olymp. arab.23
Olymp. in Mete. [Stiive] 74.17-19, 75.24-34: oxi rcd0o<; eoxlv 6 yaXa^iaq, tfronev viv auvriyopTioavTeq- oxi 8e mXw o\nc eon ndBoc;, fycoiiev drco8el2;ovxes 8id iaapi0|icov
em%eipTuidx(ov…. 6 8e neyaq Au;u,a>vio<;8id iaapiOjicov emxeipTjuxxwv drco8eiKvi)aiv, oxi oi)x eaxi naQoq depoq, (1) xai eon npmov xo ex xov dvaXXoicoxoi). ei yap ndQoq r\v 6 yaAxx?ia<;, e8ei auxov dXAoiooaiv dva8exeo6ai icai ev uxv xq> Oepei xuxov 8id xo eivai rcXeiova xrrv Ka7rvo58Ti dva8i)uAaoiv Aau,np6xepov yiveoOai, ev 8e xcp x61^^1 duxrupouoOai. (2a) 8e\>xepov enixeiprpa xo ex xo5 kcxOoAod. koOoAod ydp o\>8ev xcov yivojievcov ek naQovq depoq ev 6v Kax dpiOpov naor\ xfj yrj opoiax; opaxai. (2b) xpixov eTCixelpT^ia ex: xrj<; aeA,r|vt\<;. awn Y&P woKdxco ecrd xov yaXa^iot), Sioxi awr| pev napaXAxixxei. 8eiKvvxai 8e xotixo ev xfj ouvxd^ei IlxoXeM.aia), oxi xd jiev
TcapaAAdooovxa Kaxcoxep? eiai, xd 8e rjxxov dvcoxep?….
We shall firstly argue that the Milky Way (galaxias) is an affection (pdthos). We shall
then demonstrate that it is not an affection using the same number of arguments…. The great Ammonius demonstrates using the same number of arguments that it is not an affection of the air. (1) The first argument is that based on its unchangeability. If the
Milky Way were an affection, it ought to be subject to change, to grow brighter in summer due to the smoky exhalation being more ample and to grow darker in winter. (2a) The second is a general argument. In general nothing which arises out of an affection of the air, being one in number, appears in the same way throughout the earth. (2b) Third argument based on the moon. The moon is below the Milky Way, because the moon is subject to alteration and it is demonstrated in Ptolemy’s Almagest that things that are subject to alteration are lower down, while those which are less so are higher up….
Olymp. arab. [Badawi] 98.20-99.2, 99.8-11:
tf viUi ja ? j+mZj i^jwJIj i^fJCJ * l^fJI J*j*l JI J^ji i ^) is-w <>Ltfl J\J\ uli
^ Jo>\ *V jl iiUi v_ovJ >.;…?.t Ck>lj JffJi\ ^\y ^ tfji lyfwJIj .JeJi\ <J>\
>V jfr i.j>\j ju, ij^ji pijji >V oj^i” ^ a^ji lij >di ji djs jjjjij .>ui
. Jt>.lj JlL? Js> Jp}i\ ij^uuJI
[99.10 JlSj\: Jl&\ Badawi]
The second opinion may be proven in six ways: (1) Firstly, all affections (athar, here =
p&thos) which occur in the air are changeable, but the Milky Way is not changeable. For this reason, it cannot be one of the affections occurring in the air. (2a) Secondly, affections arising in the air are never seen in the same way in all regions of the earth, but the Milky Way is seen in the same way in all regions of the earth. For this reason,
it cannot be an affection occurring in the air. … (2b) Fifthly, if it were an affection arising in the air, it must be below the moon, but it is in fact found above the sphere of the moon. The proof of this is that when the moon is eclipsed, its eclipse does not
23 Gf. Lettinck (1999) 73-74, 80 (cf. also ibid. 85-6, on the refutation of the Aristotelian view in Abu’l-Barakat and Fakhr al-Dln al-Razi).
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

appear in the same way to the inhabitants of the [different] regions of the world, but the Milky Way appears in the same way to [all] inhabitants of the world.
Although the arguments are presented in a summarised form in Cand. they are recognisably the same as those given by Olympiodorus, so that one is led to suspect that the refutation in Cand. is based on the continuation of the scholion
given above (Nic. 14.19-22) which has been omitted in the Cambridge manuscript but was still there in the manuscript of Nic. used by Barhebraeus.
2.2. Ps.-Aristotle, De mundo
Another Greek work which is occasionally mentioned by Bakos in his footnotes is the Pseudo-Aristotelian De mundo. While Bakos seems to have consulted only the Greek original of this work, the close agreement in the wording be:ween
Cand. and the Syriac version of the De mundo attributed to Sergius of Resh-cAyna
and published by de Lagarde leaves little doubt that it was that version which was available to Barhebraeus.
On thunder and lightning: Cand. 118.10-119.3
Sometimes materials taken from De mundo are found combined with those taken
from Nic. Given below is a passage for which Bakos names the De mundo as the
source. On closer examination it turns out to be an amalgam of materials taken from the De mundo and Nic.
Cand. 118.10-119.3 (underline: agreement with Nic; italic: with De mundo):
. ^ii^tiy rtovOjiAt i<a\ausn r<o\\-u -fcavs rciu?na
[t<aJb: T<alek=3 Qqek]
(1) w-hakanna kad racma ellta w d-barqa, (b) barqa men qdamaw metrgesh, (2a) b-hay d-meshtamcana mkan 1-metqaddamu wa-l-metcbaru men methazyana, (c) yattira3It kad haw d-methze yattir qallil nehwe, hanaw nurana, (d) w-haw d-meshtmac nehwe bsir b-qallfluteh 1-meta lwat mashmacta, ak meddem d-tallil ba-mnawateh. (3a) wa-d-harripa hzata men mashmacta (b) idica men aylen d-mahen b-liqe, (c) da-l-qala da-mhota qadmayta batar hzata da-mhota trayyanayta shamcinan.
(1) And thus although thunder is the cause of lightning, (b) lightning is perceived before it, (2a) because the audible [meshtam’ana] can be preceded and overtaken by
the visible [methazyana], (c) especially when what is seen is swifter, Le. fiery, (d) but what is heard is less in its swiftness in coming to hearing, like something which is
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

moist in its parts.24 (3a) That vision fa faster than hiring (b) k made knnwn fry those who strike with oars, (c) [namely by the fact] that we hear the sound of the first stroke after raging the second stroke.
Nic. 42.9-14 (< Arist. Mete. 369b 7-11):
. rCotosa /^y^” pa AurOono . Koto t<dcr> or%kaa 10/rCdro ouiOtso rOaaw-H rO^jeoa
12/jAtrC ,? rO^xrfi . Kk^MSOs pa rdkw* r<o-?xi? xiAwi . rTtiv to 11 /^* coiots retain rckl=?\ . a!^a rCiaao 13/aLrtxt?a \ aWa Klaa\ rOxA tCiiM xt^xx . Kn ruoo?
. KVUMXQ 1 4/l<*k<Ul9e/l f^oA ^liVfrTT tJXtffXl .
[13 tWwhnr: x\^-m ms.]
(la) w-hakanna kad racma qadmalt hawe, w-batreh hawe barqa, (lb) qadma3Tt man margshinan b-barqa, batreh den b-racma, (3a) mettul d-yattir harripa hzata men mashmacta. (b) w-idica men aylen d-mahen b-Hqe; (c) kad ger mahe liqa 1-mayya w-saleq, w-mendresh mahe w-saleq, hayden shamcInan 1-qala da-mhota qadmayta.
(la) And thus although thunder occurs first and lightning occurs after it, (lb) we
perceive the lightning first and after it the thunder, (3a) because vision is fasierJhan
hearing, (b) [This] is made known by those whastrike with oars, (c) For when the oar
strikes water and rises, and strikes and rises again, it rises for the second time and then we hear the sound of the first stroke.
De mundo syr. |de Lagarde| 144.5-12 (corr. De mundo gr. 395a 16-21):
x* . rCvuAoo acoomo AK* . Kcmluoo Koto . . .
AK rC^Jkoan yaToa a6r* jAia . Kvutooi ocb p* oto^kaoio ffmiAn\ pja i Am,wi j?vai Koto cW?KxAua . rok^?oo 4ta\ sxaAui K? ^samvtsan acb . <Tk iA*w\ K^sp rCiiaV pa
.uroavuK Kactu akb . \Ao Kaom rok&a^ 1^ pa xtAu . KVuAo?* pa
>}i99i Kif^K . Ktt^Msn omA f<k<d\ coowA An-? \xr=3 Kacoa ^mAuoo/* atb . rO^cu
… barqa meshtammha, (lb) hay d-ap qdamaw d-racma methze, (a) kad tab batreh hawe, (2a) b-yad d-meddem d-meshtmac mkan 1-metqaddamu wa-l-metcbaru men haw d-methze, (b) b-hay d-haw meddem d-methze ap men tawha mse l-metidacu, haw den d-meshtmac ma d-netqarrab lwat mashmacta. (c) w-yattira3it hawe hade, ma d-haw
man d-methze yattir men kul sebwata nehwe qallil, hanaw den nehwe itaw nurana, (d) haw den d-meshtmac nehwe bsir b-qallfluteh 1-meta lwat mashmacta, akzna d-meddem d-hawe tallll ba-mhoteh.
… is called lightning, (lb) and is seen before thunder, (a) although it occurs after it, (2a) because what is heard [meddem d-meshtmac < t6 akoust6n] can be preceded and
overtaken by what is seen [meddem d-methze < t6 horat6n], (b) because what is seen can be known from a distance,25 but what is heard [only] when it approaches hearing,
(c) This happens especially when what is seen is swifter than all things, i.e. [when] it is fiery, (d) but what is heard is less in its swiftness in coming to hearing, like something
which is moist26 in its stroke.
24 cnk&ian: no doubt due to misreading of De mundo syr. oAojiaaa < De mundo gr. ev xr\
25 On the meaning of tawhd here, see Ryssel (1880) 43 n. c.
26 The Greek has ctep<&8ec, here. Cf. Ryssel, op. cit. (n. 8), 1.43 n. d.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

Names of winds: Cand. 126.1-127.5
Another instance where Barhebraeus has used the Syriac version of De mundo, and that in preference to Nicolaus, is in the list of the twelve winds {Cand. 126.1-127.5).27 This may be seen in the following table, where for reference I
also give the names found in some other Greek, Arabic and Syriac works.28
Arist. = Arist. Mete. 363a 34-b 26; DM gr. = D-mundo (Greek) 394b 19-35; Olymp. = Olymp. in Mete. ed. Stuve 185.26-187.1; DM syr. = De mundo syr. ed. Lagarde 142.30-143.19; Cand. = Cand. ed. Bako? 126.1-127.5; JE: Jacob of Edessa, Hexaemeron, ed. Chabot 84f., tr. Vaschalde,
68; BK311 = Moses b. Kepha, Hexaemeron Commentary, ms. Paris syr. 311, fol. 57r; BK241, id., ms. Paris syr. 241, fol. 188v (cf. Schlimme [1977] 618f., 654); Nic. = Nicolaus, Compendium,
diagram on p. 32 (also ms. Paris syr. 346, 61 v); But = Barhebraeus, Butyrum saplentiae, Mete. 3.2.3, ms. Florence, Laur. or. 83, fol. 69r b 6-22.
J E BK311 BK241 Nic. But. N Boreas Aparc. Bor. N N N N N N N
Arist. DM gr. Olymp. DM syr. Cand.
(Aparctias) (Aparc.)
NNE Meses Bor. Meses Aparc. Aparc. Caec. Caec. Thrasc.! Meses Meses
ENE Caecias Caec. Caec. Caec. Caec. Apel Apel. Caec. Caec. Caec.
S Notus Notus Notus S S S S S S S
SSW Libonot.Libonot.Libonot. Libonot Libon Libonot
E Apeliotes Apel. Apel. E E E E E E E ESE Euros Euros Euros Euros Euros Euros
Apel. Apel.Apel. Euros
Phoen. Euronot. Euronot. Euronot. Euronot. Euronot. Phoen. Phoen. (Phoenlcias) Euronot.
WSWLips Lips Lips Lips Lips lips L
W Zephyrus Zeph. Zeph. W W W/Zeph.W W W w :
Argestes Argest. Argest. Argest. Iapyx Iapyx Lips! A p a r c . A p a r c .
(Sciron) (Olymp.) (Iapyx) Olymp.
(Olympias) (Iapyx) NNWThrascias Thrasc. 29 Thrasc.
Thrasc. Thrasc.
Thrasc. Thrasc. Iapyx! Thrasc.
We see that Barhebraeus follows Nic. in his later wo (Hewat hekmta, Cream of Wisdom), but in Cand. h
27 That BH here stands closer to the De mundo than to Aris (p.127 n.l).
28 For the names of the winds elsewhere in Greek and Latin literature, see Gilbert (1907) 550f.
29 KipKiav Forster; KaiKiav codd. et Bekker. The ^joorcirco of the Syriac version (143.12) is closer to KaiKiav (see Ryssel [1880] 1.39 n b), but Kaiiriaq is written <*uu0 in the same text at 143.1,12,21 (no doubt to be corrected to auuo, Ryssel, 1.38 n. b).
30 Base II of Cand. was probably written around 1578 A.Gr. = 1266/7 A.D (see Cand. 221.6-8; cf. ibid. 222 n.l; Nau [1910] 246, 247 n.2; cf. further Takahashi [2001] n. 39). For But., ms. Mingana syr. 310 (fol. 216r) gives the date of completion for the part on the natural sciences
as 22 Ab 1596 A.Gr. (Aug. 1285 A.D.), while ms. Laur. or. 83 (191v, 227r) gives the dates for the part on metaphysics and for the whole work, respectively, as end of Kanon I 1597 (Dec.
1285) and 8 Shebat 1597 (Feb. 1286) (cf. Margoliouth [1887] 41f.).
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

might note in particular how Cand. follows the Syriac version of the De mundo
in the displacement of Boreas/Aparctias and Apeliotes/Eurus.31 In the spelling of the individual names, too, Cand. follows De mundo svr., as for example in
writing *<=u\ [llba] for Lips (as opposed to <*&u\/c?a*A [lips/llpos] in Nic, ouaJ
[lipis] But. omnes codd.) and in writing auoi^K [apriqls],32 without the teth, for
The names in Bar Kepha, too, go back to the De mundo, but the dependence
of Cand. on Bar Kepha may be ruled out by the fact that of the three names given for the WNW wind Bar Kepha chooses Iapyx, while Barhebraeus opts for Argestes. Bar Kepha, in his turn, is evidently dependent on Jacob of Edessa, as may be
gathered from this choise of Iapyx and the displacement of Caecias/Apeliotes.
2.3. Fakhr al-Dln al-Razi, K. al-mabdhith al-mashriqiyyah
An Arabic work frequently cited by Bako? in his footnotes is the “Cosmographie” (i.e. ‘Aja^ib al-makhluqdt [= cAjd3ib] and Athdr al-bildd) of Zakariyya3 b.
Muhammad b. Mahmud al-Qazwini (ca. 1203-1283). As Bako? was aware,33 however, Qazwini is unlikely to be the source of Cand., since Cand. most probably predates the works of Qazwini.
The source in many of the instances where BakoS names Qazwini as a parallel is in fact to be sought in a work of a slightly earlier author, namely in the
K. al-mabdhith al-mashriqiyyah of Fakhr al-Din Muhammad b. cUmar al-Razi (1149-1209). The choice of the author is not a surprising one, since Fakhr al-Din al-Razi’s writings enjoyed wide popularity in the 13th century and another work
of the same author, the Muhassal afkdr al-mutaqaddimin wa-l-muta?akhkhirin has been identified as a major source in other parts of Cand.34 For his information on the natural sciences Fakhr al-Din al-Razi for his part depends to a large extent on Ibn Sina’s K. al-shifd* and it is also known that Barhebraeus himself later used this work of Ibn Sina’s as the principal source of his Butyrum sapientiae. A comparison, however, of the relevant passages of Cand. with the Mabdhith and
the Shifd9 shows that it was the Mabdhith rather than the Shifd0 which Barhebraeus used in Cand.
31 Cf. Ryssel (1880) 38 n.b.,39n.b.
32 Sic ed. BakoS cum codd. BV, et ed. ?icek; ?cya**?i< Cand. cod. P., auntoK De mundo syr. [Lagarde]; cf. m?\i*t<*r< Nic. et But. codd. plurimi.
33 BakoS intro. p. 19.
34 See the introduction above. As another instance where Fakhr al-Din al-Razf s work was used
in an encyclopedic work by a 13th century Christian author, one might mention the section on
theodicy in the K. al-Burhan of the Copt Ibn al-RShib, which has been found to be based on RazT’s K. al-ArbacTn (sec Sidarus [1975] 104-107, 134f.; cf. id., “Ibn al-R3hib”, El2 Suppl.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

Classification of Minerals: Cand. 86.1-87.3
An interesting instance illustrating the relationship between Cand., Mabahith and ch]c?ib, as well as the Book of Dialogues [= Dial.] of Severus Jacob b. Shakko
(ob. 1241), is found in the passages of these works dealing with the classification of minerals.35
Mabahith [ed. Hyderabad] II.210.5-211.5:
jl Uli (!) ^J^\ iuj CJIT jli (T) .wJ^J! liu*u> ojfr jl Uj w*>JI Lji jjfc jl U! IJjjlJ\ rUfVI (>)
jrljjtf^yJ!^*L. j^ jJJIyji^UiU*. jjfo jl Ub (I) ^^Jlii^cJtf jl U, (1) JLuljOyUlT
‘/t/VT/* [ Wustenfeld] 203.29-204.4:
jl (o) iij>J jl U ID ^J>JI hj3 (t) .y^sJI Ulj w*>JI i^i U(>)
jS? J^tf ajU ^ jui (I) djjk^jj^j V^yJIj (f) … ^JJI^IiiuJI iL?>^l ii^JaiJIj Eyir ^jlji fU^i ^^L^jid) i^xji i,u ^ jjfc (t) oy y tf i^ui i<u jjfc
?>/#/. ktaba II, memra 2, adsha 3, shu9aala 19, ms. Gottingen or. 18c 303v a6-b9 = Ruska (1897)157.22-158.6:
(k) . (6xd K=a^ai r^M” ?A?f<a (2) . Kltua? Ks^crt dK . rOaeo KT\oi rao dK rftieoa (1) rumkco* ^ rA*t< (k) , ^JkaAoo ?\a ruttaqAiM kA dK . ^ AftAnrKi ^iimAsg dK
rjocKii rdht rA?r<o (3) … rOK iwK Kscd* . Kii7ft K*nrfl^tO^ “iy ?_0CtuAwK . t AkAmra cal* 1* dK (a) * J^$ut9 KJt^K *. ^ftii< Kt^s kA raiat Aa dK (i<) . rCuiseohs KJkqft rAo-i i\ t=> ^^kan dK (k) . __ojK K?&a mi* A^i ^AirCa (4) * Kxi&a*i Klf^K *. K*&o
. i<Ai<i-ii\to jjIAum dK (?) < -taKauua oniHn\m Ki?kK . kJli&b KMc&^.^0fflLiAuK:t * K&w^aAa if” – ‘ vyK rOJji&M K?x&^.__gcaJkuKa
(1) w-halen aw qnen rukkaba qashya, aw rukkaba mhfla. (2) w-aylen da-qnen rukkaba qashya (a) aw metmhen w-metpatten, (b) aw la metmhen w-la metpatten. (a) aylen den d-metmhen w-metpatten itayhon shabca gushme, dahba amar na … (3) w-aylen d-la hashin puttaya b-tumhaya (a) aw kul kulleh la qtire enon, akzna da-zyog, (b) aw kul kulleh qshayya. akzna d-yaqqunde. (4) w-aylen d-kul kulleh qshayya enon (a) aw
meshtren b-rattibuta. d-itayhon gushme melhanaye, akzna d-qalqandis w-nushadir, (b) aw la meshtren b-rattibuta, w-itayhon gushme meshhanaye ak arsnfqon w-kebrita.
CW. [BakoS] 86.1-87.3:
AK (rc) tO^cii mitiiq (2) . (<=^a1 JLuos dt< ?^AK tOAtcrt i’niity dt< riXa> ?_0ARXi (1)
&f< (rC) ^Aco ^tftM (3) Kirtinn\h? t<i dK (a) . . . rCsacon Ki^kK *_&1K fTlftifti\Ai? AuifCk^b Ailwsi dr< (a) rCit^i< rifiatt^Ao9 c<l .^gcriAictik*^ Aioi<*^? iu^ja
Kik.? t<997 rSa rCifioiid xt*?\ (<itt ^ax^JL^A i^d . ens f<wbL? Kj-aee 1^. wflcnl^ vyK r?4ucAA\99 fOihn-i >\to dK (k) ^ KaAa^ JLum , KiauiAroa vO^^Aiaci
35 The similarity here between lAja”ib and Dial, was noted by Ruska (1897) 157, and that between cAjaUb and Cand. by BakoS (86 n. 1), while that between Mabdhith and cAja Hb is
mentioned by Ullmann (1972) 143. – The similarity continues in the subsequent discussion of the formation of metals: Mabdhith 212.16-214.2; cAjdJib 204.5-205.10; Dial. [Ruska (1897)] 158.7-159.2; Cand. 87.4-88.3. – For an overview of the different systems for classification of
minerals found in Islamic literature, see Ullmann (1972) 140-144.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

. i<k?to^a t<^jdrtii tOptrC
(1) w-henon halen aw hlimay rukkaba enon aw mhilay rukkaba. (2) w-hlimay rukkaba (a) aw mettassesane enon akzna d-dahba … (b) aw la mettassesane, (3) w-henon halen (a) aw b-cellat saggFut rakkikuthon la mettassesin, akzna da-zyog, (b) aw b-cellat saggfut qashyuthon, w-henon halen (i) aw gllzin men dahhinuta, w-mettul hade la
metparkkln akzna d-yuqande, (ii) aw cam dahhinuta d-hasshia3it serkat b-kepanayuta w-respat la-mnawateh w-etyabbshat; menhen ettkin akzna d-adamas kepa; hade ger
law balhud la mettassesa, ella w-kad metmahya cal saddana camda beh, w-kad hakanna 1-kul gshom qashya zakya w-hasna, men dma d-cezze metparkka w-methabbla. wa-mhflay
rukkaba man (a) aw b-rattibuta metpashshrin ak kulhon melhe, shhira amar na w-nitron
wa-srapa w-ammoniqon w-qalqantis, (b) aw <la metpashshrin>, akzna d-zarnfka w kebrita.
Mabdhith: (1) Mineral substances are either strongly-composed or are weakly-composed.
(2) If they are strongly-composed, they are either (a) malleable – and these are the seven ‘bodies’ – or (b) are not malleable, (3a) either due to its extreme moistness, like
mercury, or (b) due to its extreme dryness, like corundum etc. (4) If they are weakly composed, they are either (a) dissolved by moisture – i.e. those which are salty – like vitriol, sal ammoniac, alum and qalqand, or (b) are not dissolved by moisture, i.e. those
which are oily – like sulphur and zarnikh.
l Ajd’ib: (1) They are either strongly-composed or weakly-composed. (2) The strongly
composed are either (a) malleable or (b) not malleable – (a) the malleable are the seven ‘bodies’, I mean Gold … – (3) Those which are not malleable are (a) sometimes
extremely soft, like mercury, (b) sometimes extremely hard, like corundum. (4) Those which are extremely hard are (a) sometimes dissolved by moisture and they are the
salty substances, like vitriol and sal ammoniac, and (b) sometimes not dissolved by it
and they are the oily substances, like zarnikh and sulphur.
Dial.: (1) These have either a hard composition or a weak composition. (2) Those which
have a hard composition are either (a) beatable and extensible or (b) not beatable and not extensible – those which are beatable and extensible are the seven ‘bodies’, I mean
gold … (3) Those which are not subject to extension through hammering are either (a) very unsolid, like mercury, or (b) very hard, like corundums. (4) Those which are very hard are either (a) loosened by moisture – which are the salty bodies – like qalqandis and sal ammoniac [nQshadir], or (b) not loosened by moisture – and are the oily bodies
– like arsenikdn and sulphur.
Cand. 86.1 -87.3: (1) These [i.e. minerals] are either firmly-composed or weakly-composed.
(2) The firmly-composed are either (a) malleable, like gold … or (b) not malleable and
(3) these are not malleable either (a) because of their great softness, like mercury, or (b) because of their great hardness, and these [latter] either (i) lack oiliness and for this reason crumble, like corundums, or (ii) have oiliness which has become strongly attached to the stony nature, has solidified its parts and has become dry; from them are formed, for example, the addmas [diamond] stone; for this [stone] is not only not malleable, but
when beaten on an anvil sinks inside it and, although in this way it conquers and overcomes every hard body, it is made to crumble and is destroyed by the blood of goats. (4) The weakly-composed are either (a) dissolved by moisture, like all the salts,
I mean soda [nftron], alum, sal ammoniac [ammdniak6n] and qalqantls, or (b) not dissolved, like zarnika and sulphur.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

The resemblance between these four passages leaves little doubt that they share a
common source, the likelihood being that the passage in Mabdhith is the source of the other three. At the same time there are a number of differences between the
four passages. The most striking of these occurs in part (4). According to Mabdhith and Cand. “salty” and “oily” substances such as vitriol and sulphur belong to the category of weakly-composed bodies, whereas according to cAjdDib and Dial.
they comprise subdivisions of the hard non-malleable bodies.
Mabdhith & Cand. Minerals Minerals
Strongly-composed Malleable: the 7 metals
Not malleable
Moist: mercury Dry: corundum etc.
Weakly-composed Soluble/salty: vitriol etc.
Insoluble/oily: sulphur etc.
Strongly-composed Malleable: the 7 metals
Not malleable
Soft: mercury Hard: corundum
Soluble/salty: vitriol etc. Insoluble/oily: sulphur etc.
It is obvious that the classification we have in cAjd?ib and Died, makes little sense and it is also in disagreement with the classification in Ibn Slna’s K. alshifd0 from which these classifications all ultimately derive,36 so that the system of classification found in cAjd?ib and Dial, must have arisen from some error in the
transmission of the text on which these two depend.37 The view that cAja’ib and Dial, share a common source, which is close to Mabdhith but is not Mabdhith
itself, is supported by further instances where passages resembling each other are found in these three works butf Dial, shares certain features with cAjdDib which are absent from Mabdhith.39
36 Shifd’ Min. [Montasir et al.] 20.5-9.
37 The error in Qazwini was already noted by de Chczy (in the chrestomathy of de Sacy [1826/7] vol. Ill), who retains the manuscript reading in his Arabic text (W.3) but gives the required sense in his translation (p. 390: “ceux dont la composition est lache”) and explains his correction
in his comments (p. 466f. n.8). In his translation of Qazwini, Eth6 (1868) 417 circumvents the
problem by rendering the problematic phrase as “the latter (Letztere)”. Garbers-Weyer (1980) 42 and Giese (1986) 118, on the other hand, translate as die text stands without comment and
Garbers-Weyer, evidently unaware of the problem involved here, kindly present us with a diagram of the classification of minerals based on Qazwini*s text (p. 98).
38 In the part of Dial, dealing with meteorology (Dial. II.2.3, Questions [shuttle] 13-17, ms. Gottingen 18c, 300r-303r; cf. Ruska [1897] 152), I find the following instances where Dial.
stands closer to cAja9ib than to Mabdhith: beginning of Q. 13 (300r al8-b3, b7-10; cf. CA/., ed. WUstenfeld 93.28-30, tr. Ethe* 192; the material here is combined with De mundo syr. 141.13-22, as noted by Ruska [1897] 154 n.l); account of dew, fog and frost in Q. 14 (300v b9-19; cf. cAj. 94.16-18, tr. 193f.; the question as a whole corresponds to Mat. 11.172.19-173.10,174.3-6);
accounts of thunder, lightning and thunderbolt (301 v b ult-302r bl; cf. eAj. 97.20-26, tr. 200; Mob. II.187.5-16) and of winds (302v al2-bl4; cf. cAj. 94.29-95.4, tr. 194f.; Mob. H.190.21
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

Cand., on other hand, is in agreement with Mabdhith against cAjdJib and Dial, in the overall classification and in other smaller details in the above passage,
suggesting that Barhebraeus is here directly dependent on the Mabdhith. Concerning the relationship between Cand. and Dial., we note how the same
Arabic words and phrases are rendered quite differently in the two, indicating that the two translations were made independently of each other.39
One place in the above passage of Cand. where Barhebraeus makes a major departure from the Mabdhith is in the description of the properties of diamond
(adamas). Barhebraeus has evidently taken this from the following passage of Nic. and inserted it in the middle of a passage otherwise closely based on Mabdhith .40
Nic. 59.19-23, 60.5-7:
/[t<\\^]aW T*Ml?ii? QDOCKJ1T<^ ^ T<&t<^ ?kV<Cl . 19
/[r<]cQu?io\ . crxi&uvCa r<“fcrar<A\ra t<Vue=3 t<=&cdt3 rtis^ooo pwaKAwn ^^oheXact 20
/ di^jKi . coJLm ci2^ yavxs r^snaso c<i -^i rAW ch^Aur< cn^ciaj.,.”1! ^-3 22
/{aoa]y3i\< pi ^\no . cCiodqo\Aco ?_gcnlata r<[~.] 5 /[coo] Sc*1 ^<wL rCiioo 1^. r<t tftiAoj T<ir< . .] 6
ndx^ pa (.i 7
19 w-ap kepa den d-adamas
20 sawkta d-dahba ba-shrara metamra w-iteh. tmiha
21 den d-aykanna nura la mahma lah; la den msaggep lah la-gmar rneddem. kbar
22 den rsiputah iteh cellta d-mettulatah la mqabbla meddem 1-gaw menah. d-aykanna 23 den dma d-cezze mparkek lah w-mhabbel lah b-shu^ale zadeq da-ncaqqeb …
5.w-kulhon mettassesane, star men adamos
6.-da, ella kad metmahya cal saddana camda b-gawweh parzla.
191.5) in Q. 17. – There are, on the other hand, instances where Dial, is closer to Mabahith than to cAjdJib, which is due to additional sources being used in cAjd3ib, usually the Rasd3il Ikhwdn al-safdJ (e.g. shooting stars etc., 302r bl-v al2, Mab. 11.189.2-8; 190.6-10, cAj. 91.19 92.3, tr. 188; earthquakes, 302v bl9- 303r all, Mab. 11.205.19-206.1, cAj. 149.4-8, 12-13). –
Dial. Q. 15 & 16, dealing with rainbow and halo, are evidently based on a Syriac source and are very close in content and wording to the Book ofTreastures of Job of Edessa (Bk. V, chap. 6 & 10, ed. Mingana 420a 20-b 24, 424a 6-b 5; tr. 208f., 215f.). – Given that Bar Shakko was a disciple of Kamal al-Din Musa b. Yunus (1156-1242) (see BH Chron. ecci 11.409.14-411.15, cf. Ruska [1897] 23-32), and QazwM was a disciple of Athir al-Din al-Abhari (QazwM,
Athdr al-bildd [Wustenfeld] .310.17ff.) who in turn was a disciple of Kamal al-Din, one might suspect the hand of Kamal al-Din in the common source of Bar Shakko and Qazwini. For a report of how Kamal al-Din once interpreted the works of Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, see Ibn
Khallikan, Wafaydt, ed. Cairo 1948-9, IV.397 (no. 718, s.v. “Musa, Abu’l-Fath … Kamal al-Din”); cf. Ruska (1897) 26f.
39 Cf. n. 47 below.
40 The manuscript of Nic. is fragmentary here, and our passage in Cand. (together with another passage in But. Min. 3.1.2) in fact helps us restore the sense of the passage in Nic.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

59.19b-23: Also, the stone of ‘addmas’ is said in truth to be a branch of gold.41 It is to be wondered why fire does not heat it and nothing damages it at all. Perhaps its density
is the reason why it does not receive anything inside it. Why the blood of goats makes it crumble and destroys it,42 we must investigate in the [book of] Problems.
61.5-7: … and all of them are malleable, except ‘ad&nas’. <This is not malleable and cannot be softened> but when it is beaten on an anvil sinks inside it <and is not
affected> by iron.43
Whirlwinds: Cand. 125.3-12
For further illustration of how Barhebraeus uses Mabdhith as his source, we might take the passage on whirlwinds.
Cand. 125.3-12:
rtiu^aM rCu\a cb^axxa cnso . taA i^i^id) rCiKrt ^axvAt diacaa Aa^* ccAaaac*
^&iA> vyr<* t<i\-Winft> rCuiS rCi&xoo . rtflutJhi rdlvturC rCucrt c>uitoif<9 <as? r^?r< . Ki9k\ ii i<9Xi p9 t<alt<la . rCulo ^taL. _scaaxlbt p9 ioLt<\ ^j<i^yr t*i?b\a . ^viV
[7 rdu&aaui B et De mundo syr. 143.26 (v. infra): rok^ov^a BakoS cum VP et ?i$ek II 8 rovu^a^ BakoS cum B: rdu^crfe VP, Qqek]
(la) ruha ger ayda d-men cnana palta w-nahta, (b) kad pagca bah b-urhah cnana hreta, (c) 1-appay ltaht dahya lah la-cnana hay, (d) w-hu man hay 1-appay lcel metdahya. (e)
w-hakanna men trayhon dhaye halen squblanaya d-cal napshah tekrok ruha hay gadsha lah. (0 w-beh b-krukyah qarha w-koklta metqrya. (2) w-kad msharya d-tectop 1-appay l?el w-tessaq, hayden calcala metqarya. (3) hawyan den tub kokyata w-kad hula ruhayta
matya lwat arca w-shawra w-mezdanqa menah w-catpa d-tessaq, ita pagca bah b-urhah ruha hreta d-nahta, w-hakanna dhaye squblaye d-ak hanon gadshin. (4) w-zabnin saggPan
1-ilane men shershayhon caqrin qarhe, w-1-elpe men yamma hatpin,
(la) A wind escaping from a cloud and descending, (b) when another cloud meets itin its path, (c) pushes that cloud downwards, (d) while it is itself pushed upwards,
(e) Thus from these iwo opposing propulsions it happens [gadsha] to that wind that it rilTCttjftto QU iterifc O and in its circulation it is called kdkUd and qarha. (2)
When it begins to turn back and ascend, then it is called caledld. (3) Kokyata also occur when the windy matter reaches the earth, jumps and bounces, and turns hack so as to ascend, then another descending wind meets it in its path, and so opposing propulsions like those [mentioned above] arise. (4) Often the gar fie uproots trees from their roots and snatches ships from the sea.
Mabdhith 193.17-194.5:
41 Cf. Plato, Tim. 59b xptxxri) 6e o&q… ada\iaq &K\rfii\ (cf. Pliny, N.H. 37.55).
42 On doajictq being softened by goat’s blood, see s.v. ‘Diamant*, RE V.323 [Blttmner] and RAC III.955-963 [Hermann-Stumpf]; in Arabic, see, e.g., Qazwini, cAjaHb 237.7-9.
43 Cf. Strato, Frag. 56 Wehrli [Wehrli (1950) 20.3]: [xdv doauavra] nwrconevov oe etc, xoix; okjiovck; kqi xac, otyupac, 6Xov ev6t>ea0ai.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

<>y*i J*M ^1 i?UuJ! JjL-I Jl Jy I* ?*a ^ j^J! viUi cyLJ Jl yU JyJI ^ Ifai-b ftJitLoJI Ulj .oL?*IjJ! Aaxju jl y-il) Li* Lji; Jl?LJI ?yu Ualj L>jj jjJu-w jl j*juLiJI j-xiJill
?jj*u Jij .l^jii l4i|> j** go l+^JULs u^l ^ ULi* Uy l^jj^j^l J’ cJL?j lil i^wjJI oUI jl ^^+5
.y?JI j> v-il^JI vJk^uj jUwi’tfl gliJ Jl ijujjJ! Sy d*L L^j . j-J-v^JLi Jftto \?A The cause of the descending [whirlwind] is that (la) when a wind escapes foam a cloud
mi Strive tQ dfimid, (b) then a piece of cloud meets itinJts^palh of descent and
knocks it, while other winds are pushing it from above, so that that part [of the wind] is
caught between the downward propulsions of what is above it and [(d)] the upward
propulsion of the cloud below it, (e) it comes about [ya?ridu] fromJtheJWQ mutually
QfrStrottmg prQpJilsions_ihat Itt^wmd) mPveS la a Cirek; sometimes the crookedness
of the passages augments the contorsion, just as it happens to hair that it is made curly
by the contorsion of its pores. (3) The ascending [whirlwind arises] when lhe_windy matter reaches the earth and strikes it hard, and then turns hack, then_anoiher_wind
meets it from its side so as to twist it; sometimes it also arises from the meeting of two severe winds. (4) Sometimes the strength of the Miljba^ reaches such a level that it
uproots trees and snatches ships from the _sea.
Here again the similarities between the two passages is such that one can safely regard the passage of Mabahith as the main source of the passage of Cand. and the comparison with the passage in Mabahith helps us in various ways in our understanding of the passage of Cand.44
At the same time Barhebraeus is not quite so faithful here to his source as he usually is when using Nic. as his source. In parts (lc) and (Id), for example, he seems to have simplified the corresponding parts of Mabahith and in (2) he
inserts a sentence which has no counterpart in Mabahith, defining whirlwind in
its ascent as “calcalff\45 This and the two terms qarhd and kokitd are most probably taken from De mundo.46
De mundo syr. 143.25-27 (corr. De mundo gr. 395a 5-8, cf. Ryssel [1880] 40):
44 Wc see, for example, that the rather awkward construction of the sentence ‘Thus from these two opposing propulsions it happens that…” (men trayhon dhdye d-… tekrok gadsha lah) is due to an attempt to render faithfully the corresponding construction in the Arabic (fa-yacri4u nun al-dafayni… an …).
45 The same definition in the passage of K. d-zalge, which is evidently a summary of this one, ms. Bodl. Or. 467 1 lr 14-16: vaW^crVko rC**oa . jA> tdtaS feat** ?i*flM …
. xdsaJbao ifVfc \* A*J I*t<ii ihAinm*ri-Hi . rOtaAoa
46 The passage of Bar Kepha quoted by Bako? (p. 125 n.l, from Hex. V.31) defines calcala rather as the descending whirlwind. As noted by BakoS, the passage is corrupt in ms. Paris 241 (191r b3-12); in Paris 311 (58v a 19-26) it reads more correctly (cf. tr. Schlimme 625f.): ^ rCa’tucut relays AvmM A*A pa rtikjaii nLuaJi \ AuAuK pa rdfeAfe* . tCMio pa rd^L rCx^\M.
. A*A cuiAil pa rCnW* tCmo\ jjcaaauvK ^ rCato . rckAatBatm tChoA pa rCsrtTOo H . rAA^g
. tA-?faf?* pa rc=9**v? . rcAA^ rca^wji yava rc^at=> – There is no corresponding passage in Bar Shakko, Thes., IV.24, where Bar Shakko otherwise closely follows Bar Kepha (at least not in ms. Brit. Lib. Add. 7193, the manuscript available to me [fol. 80r-v]; cf. Nau
[18%] 323 n.l).
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

w-men ruhe den cazzize, calcala man meshtammha ruha hay da-qtlra3it lcel gadya; qarha den w-kokita metqre ruha haw d-metkrek lcel wa-l-taht.
Of the strong winds, the wind which rises violently upwards is called calcdld (corr. gr. thuella); the wind which circulates upwards and downwards is called qarha and kokitd (gr. lailaps kai str6bilos).
Correction of the Translation of Cand. : Cand. 127.6-9
The following passage provides an example of how a look at the source allows us to correct our translation of Cand.
Cand. 127.6-9:
i^SfKi . ^a\, yxAtxut rCiXkAx ?a v<*\^ (1) . r<a^iKi r<xa Aw^arC t<^.at Aoa>?<^ i<^^K jxo f<acnAt<i (2) . r^-HK iunAi xAjAu a* . rdkcux^ \Au
. nft-n\ afo K^X’k acp^.-mAryr ^xteo (3) . t^a^toi rtfkj-to rC^-^K^ taA\<uia\jt . Tuxaaa <n\ ^?pa ($) ^LAim fOh.4Ki ataa Ataou*^? 4u? (4)
[8 r<su^in BakoS et ?icek: legendum?]
mettul zawca awket nyada d-arca. (1) cetra man tennanaya d-hammim tab w-saggi
yattir kmayuta kad netiled thet arca, (2) w-tehwe hi arca kemat shtihutah d-arca barrayta da-rsipa, (3) hayden methbes hu vetra haw 1-meppaq. (4) w-kad menah da-rsiput poro d-arca metcakkar, (5) mzic lah wa-mnid.
On movement [zaw’a] and tremor [nyada] of the earth. (1) When smoky exhalation which is very hot and very great in quantity is generated below the earth (2) and
the earth9 or [to be precise] the outer surface of the earth is dense, (3) then that exhalation endeavours to escape, (4) and when it to obstructed by. theJensity of the pores of the earth, (5) it moves (the earth) and shakes [it].
Mob. 11.205.17-21:
L*j>\ (\) JUi JjVI U . L+u LS> o& Uj j! c*rf ji W iJjJjII
^ dj>Cj .C.;.j.xi (0) ^joUf ^j^ijjjj (1) ?j>J! jUJIdUi JLa* lili (f)
The cause of the earthquake is either below the earth or above it or a combination of the two. The former occurs in two ways. First: (1) When smoky vapour, hot and in large quantity, is-gencrated below the earth (2) and the surface of the earth is dense and
devoid of pores and passages, (3) then When that vapour endeavours to escape (4) but
kMnat>lg?tQL.jk $Q tecausg of the density of the surface of the earth, (5) it moves in itself and moves_lhe_earth.47
47 The passage on earthquakes in Bar Shakko, Dial, closely resembles this passage of Mob., but Bar Shakko’s translation is quite different from that in Cand. – ms. Gottingen 18c, 302v bl9-303r al 1: t*Qcra / (Ouai rCiJjA\ K^bI .< kuJk *LAu : Kato rO^irO Kvol
Jw?< awKa . Kwit<\ jiiuka paLiu tea&a . t^?4K outakalt xism % akttuhav rCupa : amaal . kiM-va k*u . rekca^vk^oa Amuus**. (the last pan corresponds to Mob. 11.206.1, see
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

The verb “methbes” used in clause (3) in its primary sense means “to be pressed,
compressed”48 and Bako? duly translates the phrase “methbes … l-meppaq” as
“est comprimee de maniere qu’elle sort”,49 which, however, makes for rather
awkward syntax. The lexica tell us that the verb “methbes” can also mean “to
endeavour”50 and the phrase “qasada … al-khuruja” in the corresponding clause of Mab. tells us that this must be the sense in which the word is used here.
This, however, is not quite the whole story, since we find the following sentence at the end of the account of how earthquakes are generated in Nic.51
Nic. 37.9-10:
h^q pa&tA A\rC /coll \ -tnrcAirCi tCkiAt i<\\A.i AvuAA IakV* Lamcd vOo . . . . X099Q f^jtt<\ 6*1 ^>p9JStSiUB?
… ma hakel d-l-appay Itaht nestle tennana d-etemar, kulleh azel 1-tamman w-kad methbes mzic lah l-arca wa-mnld lah.
When, therefore, the smoke mentioned inclines downwards, all of it goes to that place, and when it becomes compressed, it moves the earth and shakes it.
Although the word “methbes9′ in Cand. must correspond in meaning to the “qasada” of Mab. , the choice of the word was perhaps influenced by the occurrence the word in Nic. This sentence of Nic. also explains the wording in clause (5), which
is not quite in agreement with the corresponding clause of Mab.
In clause (4), the phrase “the density of the pores of the earth” is a little
awkward, but it may at least be seen that the word “pores {pom)” has been transferred here from “masdmm” in clause (2) of Mab.
Correction of the text ofMabdhith: Cand. 121.10
There are occasions where the text of Cand. allows us to hazard making corrections to the text of Mabdhith. We take as an example here the lists of objects to which the shapes of comets etc. are compared in a number of related works.
Ibn Sina, Shifd3 Mete. 73.13, 13-14, 17; Mabdhith H.189.4-5; Cand. 121.10; Bar Shakko, Dial., ms. Gottingen 18c, 302r b 11-15; Qazwinl, ‘Aja’ib 91.29.
below; note how Bar Shakko retains the Arabic word order).
48 The very instance here (ms. Paris, fol. 31r) is indeed cited as a case where the verb is used in the sense “compressus est” at Payne Smith, Thes. syr. col. 1182.
49 Cf. also tr. Jijawi 65.25: ?j>JU jUJl J**^ J^>
50 Payne Smith, Thes. syr., col. 1182, Audo, Lex. 304, Cardahi, Lobab 375b (L^joAk J rtkqsa,.).
51 The account of earthquakes at Nic. 37.4-10 as a whole goes back to Arist. Mete. 365b 21-28.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

a) lock of hair b) tail c) a star d) beard e) horned animal etc.
Mabdhith: a) beast b) tail c) star d) serpent e) horned animal
Caru/.: a) lock b) tail d)tent e) horned animal
[susita] [dunba] [yarfta] [hayyuta d-qarneh] Dial. : a) lock \)zlqd d) serpent e) horned animal etc.
r<a\ i5.n5. i<ol^ rC*au rCfto ml aurC* vtikaui [susita] [aqa] [hewya] [hayyuta d-It leh qarne]
cAjd?ib: a) (star w.) lock d?) dragon e) horned animal x)columns:
For item a), the agreement of Shifd0 and Cora/, strengthens the case for correcting h\> (ddbba) found in the Hyderabad edition of Mabdhith to U}h (dhu?dba).
In d), Barhebraeus may have read the word he had before his eyes as i-^l
(akhbiya, “tents”). If so, this is more easily understood if the word before him was as in Shifd0 than if it was i*> as we have in the Hyderabad edition of
Mabdhith, although the occurrence of “serpent” (hewya) in Dial, suggests that the corruption of lihyah into hayyah had also taken place in the line of transmission to which Bar Shakko had access (the “dragon” of cAjdDib, too, is closer in
meaning to “serpent” than to “beard”).
2.4. Others
a) Dioscorides, De materia medica
Most of the information on mineralogy and meteorology in the Second Base of Cand. can be accounted for in the three sources mentioned so far.
There are also a small number of passages which must be based on sources other than these three, as, for example, the brief list of stones with particular
medical properties found at the end of the section on the formation of mountains (Cand. 84.4-85.3). As was noted by Bakos, the descriptions of the stones here go
back ultimately to Dioscorides’ De materia medica. The brevity of the passage makes it difficult to identify the immediate source used here by Barhebraeus, but it may be remembered in this case that Barhebraeus is said himself to have composed an abridgement of the De materia medica in the list of his works
drawn up by his brother Barsawma53 and that we also have an extant work by Barhebraeus on pharmacology, the abridgement of K. al-adwiya al-mufrada by Ghafiqi (Muntakhab kitdb jdmic al-mufraddt).54
52 Cf. Rasd’il Ikhwan al-safd0 [Bustaru] 11.80 ult, tr. Dicterici (1876) 87 fin. 53 BH Chron. eccl H.477-20-24.
54 Partially published by Meyerhoff-Sobhy (1932-40).
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

b) Abu’l-Barakat al-Baghdadi, K. al-muctabar (?)
The following passage provides an illustration of how in looking for Barhebraeus’ sources, we need to check the source at the level of single words and phrases.
Cand. 120.7-121.4 (underline: agreement with Mabdhith; italic: agreement with Nic): r<A\aJu^n^ zai^iAxcC* adr> ii<rto ^-tooci . KajAutsli. rCi\^ rum? Km\n> . r?jjAu-t=a* rCLL^
nCl^no v*X* % %\\ rCacocu rCisxoa . cam AutAti-* rO-?K sAi l^Ai c^aii ^mt (<^9 cOc*^^ rOa^rC . rCzx^cbt
miA\ x.Ji=xlkcn . Q3fc-H~i hV>ti\ iAii tfl urai cOu2kA ii<t< cito oco *\nAw?
t<*au ^a^. i* r<^<ui rO^teoa Kia^ ins . rCaa^^rCa rdjAuiau\a r?j-l?w:i t<f<t^y?
[120.13 evJfc” Bakos et Cicek: ^wbc* PBV et Nic. II 121.1 AunttKJu: Au^^A^i Pet Nic]
(1) mettul doqides awket lampide w-belsusyata d-methzen b-laylawata. (2a) dukkyata hanen d-it bhen kyana kebritanaya, salqin menhen cetre kebritanaye, (b) w-sarkin b-a?ar haw d-etrattab b-qarriruta lelyayta, (c) w-hakanna meshtahlap hu haw a3ar la-kyana dahhlna da-dlil 1-metnabrashu. (d) metnabrash den men zalliqay kawkabe, (e) akma d-gadsha ba-shraga d-men dalqa da-lcel daleq ayna da-ltaht meneh. (3) w-hakanna nuhre saggPe ak cammude methzen d-nahtin w-l-arca wa-l-yamma. (4a) w-nure tub
saggPata methzen b-lelya d-qaymin w-msattetan, yattlra3it b-sahwa, (b) halen d-pehtata metqryan w-cammuqe, w-haggage saggPe d-madmanaye wa-zhoritanaye w-argwanaye,
(c) b-hay d-gawna maprga d-nura, kad cam heshshoka bsir methallat, gawne d-ak halen cabed. (5) w-ma d-baleq nuhra hi dukkta pantasiya d-pehta cabda. (6) w-b-imama man la methazyan halen nabrshata mettul d-shemsha.
(1) On ‘dokides’ or iampades’ and sparks [belsusyata] which _are?seen^aL_night (pi.). (2a) Sulphureous exhalations rise from those places which_haveJn Ihem [d-it b-hen] a sulphureous substance [kyana kebritanaya] (b) and adhere to that air which has been
moistened by the nocturnal coldness; (c) and thus that air is transformed into an oily [dahhina] substance which is easily kindled, (d) and isJdndled by the rays of the stars, (e) as happens with a lamp, that (the lamp below) catches fire from the light of (the lamp) above. (3) Thus are seen many lights, like columns, falling both to the earth and to the sea. (4a) Many fires are also seen at night which are stationary and fixed,
especially in clear weather, (b) those called chasms and depths, and many illusions [haggage], blood-red, scarlet and purple [in colour], (c) because when the radiant
colour of fire is mixed a little with darkness, it produces such colours. (5) When the light comes [?, bdleqf5 that place produces a ‘phantasia’ of a chasm. (6) These blazes
are not seen during the day because of the sun.
The section here as a whole is evidently based, as often, mainly on Mabdhith and
55 Perhaps representing Arist. Mete. 342b 17 cruviov (see n. 58 below).
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

242 Nic.
Mabahith 11.188.14-21 (< Shifd3 Mete. 68.13-18):
4*J** i>j^ I4J jj& ^1 gUJI ,>uu >J! uU IS! .g-^I^JI Jojo <J JJDL JJ>UJ ^1 jl^1 ^ ^JUI J-^uJI
gJUl 4*3 Jjjuv ^ jUu ^ JitiuJ ^1 jLJl JU^ jj&j l^ikU 4j XJu Id Iji>l 44j*?. Jxi ft^u^fljlj^U jUuJI *UL eX? 4JUs?Al ^yby Jjt;?.L; <JU ?j^v ^ Oji |?J ^xJ ^ 4X,,7a1I Cuu?j lil j’^jjj
. IJjIj oalall jj& a<>iaujl (1) Third Chapter: on lights [anwarj which are seen at night in some places. [(2a)]
When rain falls on some places. wJhkhJtiay^in_ihem [allati takuna fi-ha] an oily viscosity [luzujah duhniyyah], there rise from those places fine greasy vapours, [(2d)]
which are_kindled by the least solar or fulminous cause or by the fires olihcLStars. Then, there is seen on the surface of the earth light-emitting flames [shucal], without
significant combustion [ihtiraq]56 due to their fineness. Their condition is like that of the fire which is kindled in the vapour of wine [sharab] mixed with salt and sal
ammoniac, when a wick is placed in the vaporised wine [khamr] and a lamp is placed near its vapour so that it is kindled and the flame [ishtical] endures as long as the vapour endures, except that the vapours generated by rain are much finer and thinner.
Nic. 12.1-4, 8-9 (cf. Arist. Mete. 342a 3-5,10-11; 342a 34-35):
pay i<^cu / paa _rCk2^o fUibx pa’Jm . r<A\-i /^CuAua ^ rCicu 8 . . . . vCsoAck rC^.iv<\ rJkikii ^vJkaoi
[8 ^vuAw: ^vuAos ms.]
zabnin saggPan w-men nura d-men lcel kad shawra hay da-ltaht metnabrsha, (2) akma d-hazenan d-gadsha w-ba-shraga d-men dalqa da-lcel daleq ayna da-ltaht. (3) badgon saggPin man nuhre d-methzen d-nahtln l-arca wa-l-yamma. … (4) nure den methazyan b-lelya d-qaymin w-msattetan, w-yettlra3it kad it b-sahwa.
Often (the fire) below is kindled by the fire above as it jumps, (2) as we see happen
with^lamp that (the lamp) below catches fire from the lighLoLflheJamr^^ahove. (3)
Therefore many are theJights which are seen falling to the earth-and to_the_sea. (4a)
Eires are seen ^night_wJudLare^ statiojiaty_andLfixed, especially when it is clear weather.
The placement of this section, as well as the agreement of the phrase “sparks seen at night” (belsusydtd d-methzen b-laylawdtd) in the heading with “al-anwdr
allati tushdhad bi-l-layF of Mabahith ,57 suggests that this section as a whole is intended to correspond to the section ifasl) at Mabahith II. 188.14-21 and the first sentence in Cand. [(2)] has much in common with the first part of the section in
Mabahith. Then, halfway through the section, in (2e), Barhebraeus switches his
56 Shija9: “without significant ability to burn [other things]” (*< ju* lil^l Hj** jJ. , i.e. stem IV rather than VIII).
57 The terms 8oid8e<; and \a\ina8eq, on the other hand, are probably taken from Nic. (11.22f. rcuAxla oooucn ms.; also at 11.26). In De mundo syr., the Greek XauJtd5e<; is rendered as rduasal, but 5oKi8eg as kx&i (syr. 145.11-12, corr. gr. 395b 11)
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

source, and clauses (2e)-(4a) agree closely with the passage of Nic. given above. Although (4b)-(6) have no counterparts in the text of Nic. preserved in the Cambridge manuscript, the echoes found here of Arist. Mete, suggest that these
parts may well be based on lost passages of Nic.58
More difficult to account for are the alterations made in sentence (2), namely
the introduction of the notion of “sulphureous” exhalations, and the insertion of
the phrase “like columns” (ak cammude) in sentence (3), a sentence which otherwise follows Nic. word for word.
I would like to concentrate here on the latter of these alterations, since this notion of “columns” of fire or of light is one which occurs in at least three other
works of Barhebraeus, the Tegrat tegrdtd (Treatise of treatises), K. d-zalge (Book of Rays) and Butyrum sapientiae, and in each case (except in K. d-zalge, where
Barhebraeus is summarising his own Cand.) the notion is introduced where there is no such notion in the principal sources which Barhebraeus is following in the respective works, a fact which suggests that Barhebraeus had a particular interest in making a mention of this phenomenon.
In Cand. Barhebraeus apparently envisages the phenomenon under consideration as a kind of shooting star, as indicated by the fact that he talks of
these lights as “falling to the earth and the sea”. Similarly in the Tegrat tegrdtd, the mention of the “columns of fire” occurs in a passage where in the corresponding
part of Ghazalfs Maqdsid al-falasifah the talk is of “shooting stars”.59
Tegrat tegrdtd, ms. Cantab. Add. 2003, 56v 12-16:
4? crt^iaM *. rtkatou Jto 1rr\-m>u burCi\?*Jt?n t<l _k pa rCuAta 12
. ^vuAxw vdsosc ojicA tOh^t< pa rC\ai 16/ai&sa**. tOAXfM . J^aoo Auf<ttycao? t<%m w-tennana man en la metcakkranalt netmatte lwat gigla hay nuranita, meshtgaru bah meshtgar. badgon hi hula dileh en cdamma l-ar?a y, kulhen mnawateh hda men hda
sbisanit meshtagran, w-hakanna cammuday nura men arca lwat shmayya methzen. When smoke comes to that fiery circle [i.e. the sphere of fire] unhindered, it catches
58 Cf. Arist. Mete. 342a 35-36, 342b 4-9, 17-18, 19-20: (4a) tyahizmi 5e itoxe cruvioxduEva viJKTCOp aLQpta<; oiuan? noXka <|>dauaxa ev x? o-upav?, (b) cfiov xdaunxd Tp *al pofruvot kqi alM-atcoSn xptpjiata…. (4b/c) oi>8ev dxorcov el xpcouoxiCexai 6 ainbq oxnoq df^p auvioxduEvoq
TcavTOoaitdq XP^a^” Sid xe yap jcuKvoxepo-u 5icw|KXtv6u?vov eXaxxov <|>c5q ical dvdicXaaiv Sexouevoc, 6 dfip jtavxo8arcd xp^axa TtoirjCEi, udXtoxa 5e foiviKofiv f) rcopfoipofiv, 8id xo xawa^dXicrcaeKi?\)jiiip(Dc^i)<; KaiXe\)ko\)0aweo6ai uFAyNmugymy KaxdxQ^&micpooOTioeic,,
… (5) croviov S* exi xdauu 6okeI. … (6) tyiiaac M^v ovv ojflAos Kflftuei,…
59 On the relationship of Tegrat tegrdtd to the Maqdsid, see Takahashi, “Barhebraeus und seine islamischen Quellen …” – With the passage here, cf. Ghazali, Maqdsid al-faldsifah [Dunya] 342.23-26:4jl>JI J>i? J,J?.7…h> L^j .jl*Lu jU J-axi jUI -ui cla^ilj ^Sll .LtLa; a^JI ^Jau |J jlj
.’Uaiu V/ ^?*>> (“If coldness does not strike it, (the smoke) rises to aether, fire is kindled in it and there arises from it a fire which is seen; sometimes the fire extends [tastatil!] along the
length of the smoke and is then called a shooting star [kaukab munqadd].”) – Cf. also Ibn Sma, Ddnish-ndmah TabPiyyat [Mishkat] 71.1-4.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

fire in it, so that, if its material [extends] to the earth, all its parts steadily catch fire from one another and in this way are seen columns of fire [extending] from the earth to the sky.
The following section (zalgd) of K. d-zalge is based on the section of Cand. quoted above.60
K. d-zalge, ms. Bodl. Or. 467,12v 1-9 (underline: agreement with Cand.):
rCyjicr^ cOAXoa . tfftiry^Tb \?? sAi cam l^Jk ato pr* vC^pc vyi< . yOg-fr-i lAnn rCjAuifrn^
tOliaa . rjji:iA\? rCual pa ^Am vyi<* rCtaxu ^nrl, *^ *<&Qib\a ^aco-tarxLi rfft iiAvn
zalga: (2) men dukkyata kebritanayata cetre salqin b-a3ar kebritanaye, w-men zalliqay kawkabe sammuhtane metnabrshln, ak shraga d-men haw da-lcel meneh daleq belcad gshapa. (3) w-hakanna cammude d-nuhre b-duk duk methzen, (5) mallon den b-laylawata, d-hay d-b-imama men nuhreh d-shemsha methappe nuhrhon. (-) w-zabnata kad ?ashnin nuhre d-ak halen men ruhe metdhen, w-benyane mshahlpe mawqdln.
“Ray: (2) Emm sulphureous places sulphureous exhalations rise into the air and are kindled by the rays of the bright stars, like a lamp which catches fire from the one aboveJt without contact. (3) In this way columns of light are seen in some places, (5) especially at night, because during the day the sun obscures their light. (-) Sometimes
when such lights grow strong, they are driven by winds and burn various buildings.”
In the following passage of the Butyrum, the part marked (ii), which has no equivalent in Ibn Sina’s K. al-shifd\ is found sandwiched between two passages closely based on the Shifd0.61
But. Mete. 4.3.4:
f<^\^i ja\aox< auvCa . KTun vC^Sscm x<\8=ax<* . 4t<f<=? rdLu* ArC saaa\ ^ i’W?~ f<wtt<=i co’tattfe. ^ rd^nioQ *<iVh t<ba<rtia . alltfb t<^*ta< pa xcai x^o? Kxbkrtsaak ,99 rAcoo . juAow rCaiiAoa t<iirrr\ rCw^rC pa x<\oav rCvasa^. . \Jnco pa rtxAir* rCma . *?4sub
. p^Ttdaisa t<x2a*a KmIsqui rCXousaaa f<Jct>1ctik<i K4^? Aiayl^g 1*. itikahrC mhaggegin den tub ap pehte b-a9ar, w-abbule heshshoke ba-shmayya. (ii) w-it emat
d-cetra kebritanaya d-saggi Ibid men ar?a saleq, wa-l-rawma cellaya metmatte, kad ceqqara b-arca qbi?. w-ma d-dalqa men hetlr, cammuda d-nura men arca la-shmayya
60 The order of presentation is different in Cand. and Zalge. Whereas the order in Cand. is “shooting stars etc.” (120.7-121.5), “comets” (121.6-122.2), “conflagration” (yaqdana, 122.3-8), Milky Way (122.9-123.8), in Zalge, BH talks about “comets” at a much earlier point (ms.
Bodl. Or. 467, lOv ult-llr 8) and this is followed by discussions of wind/whirlwind (llr 8-16), rainbow etc. (1 lr 16-11 v 16) and munder/hghtning etc. (11 v 17-12v 1) before we reach
the shooting stars (12v 1-9) and the Milky Way (12v 9-14). – The last part of the passage quoted here (“sometimes when such lights …”) corresponds to the discussion of the “conflagration” at Cand. 122.3ff.
61 The sentences (i) and (ii) correspond, respectively to Shija* Mete. 74.8-9 and 74.14-15: La,
ilij^L^l^JU Jjj Jfi\ … *L*J!^ aJLL* liL* j jloI>!jyni^^jtolj> If;!cX>j^k}cJ1>jcmjU; .iJLrUJI i-^LJI SjUJI Jp\j*i\ <_JUj i6jly?JI ^LJ^jUj <jUmVI
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

the greco-syriac and arabic sources of barhebraeus’ mineralogy
methze da-mtih. (iii) w-halen man atwata cal ruhe wa-glizut metra w-kurhane mmitane hammime w-yabbishe mshawdcan.
… (i) They also cause illusions of chasms in the air and of dark porches in the sky. (ii) Sometimes a very thick sulphureous exhalation rises from the earth and reaches the upper heights, while its root is fixed to the earth; when it catches fire from the aether,
there appears a column of fire extending from the earth to the sky. (iii) These signs portend winds, drought and fatal, ‘hot’ and ‘dry’ diseases.
It is to be noted that Barhebraeus talks here of “sulphureous” exhalation as in Cand. and Zalge, and of the column extending “from the earth to the sky” as in Tegrat tegrdtd. The sentence here may therefore be one which Barhebraeus put
together on the basis of his earlier works. The fact that Barhebraeus inserts this sentence into a passage otherwise based on Ibn Sina shows again the interest he
had in this phenomenon of the “column of fire”.
The reason for this interest is not difficult to guess. Barhebraeus probably
has in mind the “column of fire” of the Exodus narrative (Ex. 13.21). It is
probably for the same reason that the phrase “column of fire” occurs in some other Oriental works dealing with Aristotelian meteorology for which Jewish or Christian authors were responsible, as in the Arabic version of Arist. Mete, by the Christian Yahya b. al-Bitriq (ob. ca. 830) and in the Hebrew translation of that
Arabic version by Samuel b. Tibbon, as well as in a compendium of Aristotelian meteorology attributed to Hunain b. Ishaq.62
In the Arabic version by Ibn al-Bitriq, it is difficult to find any points of similarity with the passages of Barhebraeus’ works quoted above beyond the coincidence of the phrase “column of fire”. Passages where there are at least some further points of contact with the passages quoted above may be found in a
work of a Jewish author (who converted to Islam in his old age), namely in the K. al-muctabar of Abu ‘1-Barakat Hibat Allah b. cAli b. Malka al-Baghdadi (ca.
1077-after 1164/5).
Abu’l-Barakat, K. al-muctabar [Hyderabad (1357-8 h.)] 11.222.11-16:
jUJI JUiitf Jju-lid jLJI 1/ iSf?> j& J\*\ J>\ JL^LaJI ?ji~J1 ^1>jJI jUJI <y Wif li* j>\ ^L-x* AiJal JUuoj aJl>j UL-a* CJLikl li! dU! IS j>Xu}\ ^\ iiauU ^ui L4I1JI J^Cj jL? -U-LaJ!
… ^xl$j ^jj\j J*-iJI si* dUiS’ .JLjuiii 4JU0
These all [i.e. shooting stars, comets, etc.] arise from mixed smoky vapour rising to the upper parts of the atmosphere until it reaches the proximity of the circle [sphere] of fire and is kindled in the same way as [when] rising smoke is kindled by fire above it and
62 Ibn al-Bitriq [Petraitis] 30.8, 11, 31.10, [Schoonheim] 1. 207, 210, 222; Ibn Tibbon [Fontaine] 1.321, 324, 335 (cammud esh). – The phrase in these instances apparently represent “<|>X6?” of
Arist. 341b 2, 26. – Hunain, Comp. [Daiber] 294, 303, 305, 306; Moses b. Kepha, Paris 241, 196vb25(tr. 642.2).
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

the flame in (that smoke) descends back to the source of the smoke Pit. the thing turned into smoke, mutadhakkin] – just as, when you extinguish a lamp but its smoke continues to rise, and you then bring (the lamp) near another lamp and place (the first
lamp) below (the second lamp) in such a way that smoke rises from the extinguished
(lamp) to (the lamp) which is lit, you then see fire being ignited in that smoke, descending to the extinguished (lamp) in the column [ camud] of its smoke and kindling
it-just so…
Abu’l-Barakat, K. al-muctabar, H.224.24-225.163:
… *LJI ^\ j<>Ji\ L> IjJos. JUtSftf I;!y\ JlA* ?o<y ?y i-ikJI JU! ^ iJL)cJj jiaJj I once saw on a dark night in al-Hilla in violent wind lights [anwar] like very large
columns [extending] from the earth to the sky …
In the first of these passages the word “column” occurs in the context of a comparison of the way in which smoky exhalation is ignited to that of smoke in
lamps, a comparison which we also encounter in the passage of Cand. under examination here. In the second, we find the phrase “from the earth to the sky”,
which we also find in the passages of the Tegrat tegrdtd and But. quoted above. The evidence we have here is admittedly a little too weak to enable us to
identify with certainty the K. al-mu Habar as the source of the phrase “like columns”
in Cand., but the identification is given some additional support by a number of
passages in But., where the source can be identified with greater certainty as the K. al-muHabarf*
I have dwelt at some length on the phrase “like columns” partly as an instance illustrating the complexities involved in the study of Barhebraeus’ sources; for it shows how in looking for Barhebraeus’ sources we must analyse the text not at the level of passages or sentences, but at the level of single phrases and words.
Another reason for dwelling on the phrase was the light it helps cast on the relationship between the four works of Barhebraeus mentioned here. We have seen that in Cand. and Tegrat tegrdtd Barhebraeus seems to envisage by “columns
of light/fire” a phenomenon constantly in motion like shooting stars. In the K. d-zalge, on the other hand, as a result of the omission of various phrases which are in the corresponding part of Cand., Barhebraeus appears to be thinking of a
stationary phenomenon, and the same may be said of the passage of But. quoted
above. If this interpretation is correct, since we know the dates of composition of Cand. and But., namely ca. 1266/7 for Cand. Base II and 1285/6 for But.,65 it will
allows us to trace a change in Barhebraeus’ thought concerning the phenomenon
63 Cf. Lettinck (1999) 84, where there is a summary of Mu’tabar H.224.24-225.21.
64 BH follows K. al-muHabar in parts of his discussion of minerals in But. Min. chap. 3 (3.1.5, corr. Muctabar H.230.17-20; 3.3.3, corr. H.230.24-231.18), as well as in his refutation of astrology and alchemy in But. De generatione et corruptione, chap. 2, sect. 5 (ms. Laur. or. 83, 44v; corr. MuHabar II.232f.) and chap. 4, sect. 3 (50r-51r; corr. 11.23If.).
65 See n. 30 above.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

he described as “columns of light/fire” and also to suggest grouping Ccmd. and Tegrat tegrdtd on the one hand as relatively early works and But. and K. d-zalge on the other as works belonging to a later period.66
3. Sources of Geographical Information 3.1. Blruni, Tafhim U-awaHl sindcat al-tanjim
In his attempt to explain many of the place-names found in the Second Base of Cand., BakoS frequently turned to. the Tdrikh al-hind (K. fi tahqiq ma li-l-hind min maqdlah maqbulah fi ‘l-caql aw mardhulah) of Abu ‘1-Rayhan Muhammad
b. Ahmad al-Blruni (973-after 1050). In doing so, he was looking in the right area, but not quite in the right place. A large proportion of the passages dealing
with geographical matters in Cand. IL3.1.2 can, in fact, be identified as close paraphrases of passages out of another work of Birunl, K. al-tafhim li-awd0il
sindcat al-tanjim (= Tafhim).61
Qubbat al-ard\ Cand. 92.10-93.5
We might take as an example the passage concerning the “centre of the earth”.68
Cand. 92.10-93Si
fakk^ao LioK mitaoo i<CH*ui f<im* ausa . roWax^ r^tam AwiinnoftAvm rtfctioaia i<sA*? rm^xr< yaiso t<\ci r<im rftk^aT* mAtaaa^rt l^ci . rOtafcoci cC^cC* avcOtoa
aujiAta y;^ mi ^ijn ato . i^fee* rttoea&h* am pamv* ^HaxKi rCt&umA . rcu&n . rC^rdfem am f<^99a^.o . isa t<iaAanm am i<4a\. am AurCi ^-torC . rOuS’t^am osaVaak
. ^ucm\ raauia . oitOsi rtka&Ansa ^vaK rakjum Aut< . .jciullt ka am rC^tom I^.a
. readme rC^t< yaw* . r^jL&aoa rC-tao .tfluaai rClaVa . JC*ir<Ai Ktowa
w-nuqdta d-metpasqanut surta d-shawyuta meneh d-hana hudrfi qubbtih awket msactah marana^t d-arca metqarya. w-cal aykannayutah d-dukkta hade w-la meddem eshkahnan
66 K. d-zalge must of course be later than Cand. since by all appearances it is essentially a summary of Cand. – It might be mentioned here that there are further instances where Zalge agrees with But. against Cand. (e.g. in quoting Psalm 104.32 in connection with earthquakes:
Zalge, Bodl. Or. 467, 13r 7-9; But. Min. 2.3.4 fin.). – On the other hand, a relatively early terminus ante quern for the Zalge is provided by a mention of this work in the Awsar raze IHorreum mysteriorum (in II. Thess. 2.3, ms. Bodl. Hunt. 1, p. 145b 50f., cf. Gdttsberger [1900] 169 n.2), which work, in turn, seems to have been completed in 1272 (so the date in the colophon
of Laur. or. 230, S.E. Assemani [1742] 68, Schrdter [1857] 2; contra “1278”, J.S. Assemani, BO 11.277, Baumstark, GSL 314, et al.). The Zalge must also be placed before the Nomocanon
and Swdd sopiyalSermo sapientiae (see Norn. VII.9 [Bedjan] 106.10f., tCicek] 64a 4f.; Serm. sap. [Janssens] 54.5, tr. 173).
67 Besides here, Bfruni is likely to be a major source for the geographical information in the section on the sea (ed. Bako? 150-166), as well for the discussions of astronomy (196-212) and chronology (212-218) later on in the 2nd Base of Cand.
68 On the qubbat al-ard, see the article “al-Kubba, Kubbat al-cAlam, K. al-Ard, K. Arm”, El2 V [1980] 297 [Ch.Pellat].
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

hidemi takahashi
ba-ktabe d-yawnaye. en 1-hendwaye shmacnan d-amrin d-tamman u cumra d-shede, haw d-qaren leh ‘kng\ wa-thet polos haw garbyaya amrin d-it hu tura haw d-metqre
‘myr’, w-cumra w d-malake. w-cal surta haw bet trayhon it mditta ?wzyn’ b-malkuta d- ‘m3lw\ w-hesna ‘zwhytg’, w-madbara ‘t’nysh’, w-ture taqqlpay qurra wa-mtallge da-qdam arca d-hunnaye.
The point at which fte mmtm is intersected by Jhte?liD? is called the dome
[qubbtd = arab. qubba\ or the centre proper, of the earth. Concerning the property of this place, we have found nothing in the books of the Greeks, but we have heard that the Indians say that there is the abode of the demons which they call kng. They say that under the North Pole is that mountain called myr and it is the abode of the angels. On the line between the two is the city ?w7yn in the kingdom afm’lw, the fortress zwhytg, the desert t’nysh and the very cold snow-clad mountains
which [stand] before the land of the Blips*
In his attempt to identify the Indian place-names found in this passage, BakoS made use of the Tdrikh al-hind and the geography of Abu’l-Fida. His task would
have been easier, had he had access to the following passage of Taflum. Taflum arab. [Wright]69 140.9-15:
>JI ^jl |?L?I {J^\ sjj*ai\ JLxJIj ^LJb viL-^jj iiJij !>Jl? i?JL* [c~Jj: legeoJ, II j^U^I: lege j>?jUj*J! II atf: lege dLJII dL^,: lege <ib9*J>J]
What is the qubhat al-ard? It means the mid-point of the longitude between east and west. It is sometimes described as ‘lacking latitude”, because it is on the equator. I
have been unable to ascertain whether it is the opinion of the Persians or others, as the hooks of the Greeks do not mention it. The Indians claim that there is hnk (lege Ink,
Lanka), the abode of the demons, and that under the North Pole is the mountain called Mfru (Mem), the abode of the angels. On the line joining the two is the city of Auzin
(Iljjain) in the kindgom of Malwa, the fortress RiihTtok (Rohtak), the plain of Tanfshar fThaneshwart and the very cold mountains which [stand] before the landof the Turks.
Since Taflum exists in Arabic and Persian versions and we know that Barhebraeus
was capable of using Persian sources,70 we must consider here the possibility that
69 The Arabic text given by Wright is a facsimile edition of ms. Brit. Lib. Or. 8349 (undated, but before 1435/6). Wright’s English translation, which he originally made from a manuscript of
the Persian version, is frequently closer to the Persian version than to the Arabic.
70 BH’s disciple, Gabriel b. John of Bartelli (as bishop, Dioscorus of Gazarta, ob. 1301) tells us in his biography of his teacher that the “Holy Spirit” had instructed him in “Syriac, Armenian,
Arabic and Persian” (ed. gicek [1985] 39.5f.; cf. Sauma [1998] 40). – For the use of Persian sources in BH Chron., see ed. Bedjan 2.12; 249.20; 555.12-15 (Juwaini); 4%. 19-24 (a song translated from Persian, = BH Carm. [Dolabani] p. 165, no. 12.10). – On the use of Tusi’s Akhldq-i nasiri as the principal source for the part of But. on practical philosophy, see Zonta (1992), id. (1998). – Cf. also Hoffmann (1827) 297; Gdttsberger (1900) 149; Wickens (1962)
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

Barhebraeus used the Persian, rather than the Arabic, version of Tafliim. Tafhun pers. [Huma’i 1316 h.] 193.2-194.1
jljju> ulj .JLi! Jl> j! jl jUUji ^l^fi^ 4/jlj^ji jl L c?.mJL..?jb ^1jj ^IS* |iJU;j Ij?JJL> ^ CHjj’ yf** ^ ^ jl ^ i^wl yj .c^l Jj oLJ jl ? juL c*J UjI 4/ .ljjSL->
What is the quhhat al-ard? Its meaning is the mid-point of the longitude between east and west in the inhabited quarter. Some say that it has no latitude, so that it is on the equator. I do not know whether it is the expression and the opinion of the Persians or others, as the hooks of the Greeks do not mention it. The Indians say that there is a high place there, whose name is T^anka (Ink), and it is the abode of the demons [diw] and fairies [pan]. QnJheJine which extends from Lanka to Mt. MM (Meru) are the citjLof Auzin (Ujjain) inJhe kindgom of Malwa, the fortress Rflhftak (Rohtak), the plain.of TanlsharjC^^ the district of Jaman (Yamuna). There [are also] the Yer^ ^Qld mojjntain&j^ snows, which [stand] between Hindustan and the land of the
The instances in the above passages where the Persian version differs from both the Arabic version and Cand. are, I believe, sufficient to show that it was the
Arabic version which was used by Barhebraeus (e.g. the omission of Mt. Meru’s location under the North Pole and its being the abode the angels; addition of “the district of Yamuna”; “between Hindustan and the land of the Turks” as opposed to “before the land of the Turks/Huns”). Cand. does agree with the Persian version in the phrase “(Indians) say” (amrin: hamhguyand Pers.; yazcumuna, “claim”, Arab.), but it is not so unnatural for the verb zacama to be translated by emar. It also agrees with the Persian version in describing the mountains mentioned at the end of the passage as “snow-clad” (mtallge: ba barf-hd Pers.; om. Arab.),
but since the Arabic text published by Wright is that of a single manuscript, it
may be that a phrase corresponding to “snow-clad” should be restored here in the Arabic text.
The view that it was the Arabic version which Barhebraeus used is also supported by the following, rather curious, passage which occurs a little later.
Cand. 95.2-7
pa fCvo K^iwi . fCi?ai to\ 4u\ . aco <<^utMi rtkiCMafc* oto K%ktf< l\pa Ktomfiiim -wtoa rCiu^o KfetAM i<m^i fkSu\a% ^AUto ?^faKa . jflrtwk. ^ifaio y\*mba ^\nirrn *to
pa lAo ,401^8 i^iasM k?&, Kn^ftm rUa^x** i<*1?&k fiWi ^QtaAsa 0**4 lAp
. yAAiJbkkwo Kim*
w-hay d-metamra mettul atra haw d-shawyuta da-mmazzga w, layt leh dumya. w-idica hade men hay da-msayytin w-shuhharin wa-mhankin camoraw w-kulhon hanon d qarribin b-gawna w-sacra wa-cyade w-hawna. w-aykanna netmazzag atra ayna d-martah
shemsha muhayhon d-camoraw, aykanna d-kad qallO narheq mention b-halen tren
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

hidemi takahashi
shuhJape d-yadcman b-satwa ket wa-b-qayta maghen qallil men yaqdana w-mettnihin. What has been said concerning the equatorial region, that it is temperate, lacks
probability. This is known from the fact that its inhabitants and all those who are near [them]71 are burnt, blackened and singed in colour, hair, customs and intelligence. How can that place be temperate where the sun boils the brains of
the inhabitants, so that when it moves away from them a little in those two seasons which we know as winter and summer, they are freed from the burning
[yaqdana] a little and find rest?
Taflilm arab. [Wright] 125.5-9
Ui>j lytij UjJ t|4u oy j>j *l>f Jly>l M~*i iJbLig\jJ\ Jjlum aJI 4jl* ^LJI Joju ^UjI ^1J^w U Uli
.%JLi Ij>lji^l> Iij~~t Ij>jj? oL^ojij
[Ui>j: lege UU>jll l^: lege l+iyull U^-*: Uw legend.?]
As to what has entered the imagination of some that (the equator) is temperate [muctadil]
in constitution [mizaj], this is false. That the opposite is the case is proven by the burnt-up condition [ihtiraq] of its inhabitants and of those who are near them in terms of colour, hair, manners and intelligence. How can the constitution [mizaj] of a place
be temperate, where the sun boils the brains of its inhabitants by being at the zenith
[bi-l-musamata] so that, when it inclines away from the zenith in those two seasons which we know as winter and summer, they relax a little and find rest for a while.
Taflilm pers. [Huma’i 1316 h.] 171.7-12
JLjIjJ ijiy pMj wJUiy p*j iJj*J |?>j jjJL tCw! tiLjj’ jLwL ?iUlj tjjljUiy tf^j>^ jl
Some people are of the opinion concerning (the equator) that its nature and constitution is temperate, but this is an error. The proof for the opposite of this opinion is that
which you see in the bumt-up condition [sukhtigi] of its people and those who are near to them, in colour, hair, rude custom and inadequate intelligence. How can there be temperateness in a place where the sun constantly cooks [jush&ndan] the brain of the
head of the people from above, so that, when it inclines away from the zenith in those two seasons which we call summer and winter, they find a little refreshment and rest.
In his discussion the “seven climes” (Cand. 95.8-102.1), Barhebraeus gives us the names of cities and places which are found in each of these climes. Most, though not quite all, of these place-names are taken from the Tafhim.
Cand, 96.5-97.2 (on the Second Clime):
ffijq^Vfc ti-ki . low i<kiA999 jjr?ao? ftLftsfei rtiurffev p9 cuss 9ut<a . r^^x<a aoaM^Kjo ^cioa _j<afi?f<<i WiT^m* rtiitciahlm za+bua t<t<afiM f<aato cD-tmaa/i . f^atOouci t^t^DCi
In the East, it [the second clime] begins in the land of China and passes to the 71 Male “et que tous se ressemblent pour la couleur,…” BakoS.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

north of the Mountains of Q&mrun (q’mrwn), and Kanauj (kbwg\ Baranasi (y ‘r’nsy) and Ujjain (?wgyn); it includes among the cities of the Cushites the city of Suene
(sw’ny) and Daibul (dbyl); in the west, Oman (emn\ Hajar (hgr\ Yamamah (ym’m%
Mahnih (mhrh\ Sheba (shb>\ Saha (jft”), Yathrih (yH*X the kingdom of the
Abyssinians, Aswan (?sw?n\ Qus and Upper Said (scyrf); and it ends at the sea Ocean us.
Tafhim arab. 143.12-144.2 (corr. TafhJm pers. 198.8-13):
u joao j&jj ^jio jjja\j jl> jui js> ^1 ^ ^ i^s-oJi ^ ^ i>ii 4ju j^yrvi
[^j-^: lege j^jll j>*s>j ms.: lege II 4JL0: legs ” c^yj”- legeu*A> ” ^ vjyuJl: 4j^yljyjju jUjfi y^jPers.]
Second Clime: It beginsfrom the land_oLChina and passes from the land of Hind toihe north of the mountains jof i^amrun. Kanauj, Baranasi, Uyain, some of [the places] on
the coast [sahel] [like] Tanah, Jimur and Sindan, and in the land of Sind, al-Mansura and Daibul; then, it reaches Oman; in the land of the Arabs it includes al-Hajar, al-Najran, Yamamah, Mahrah, Saha, Tabalah, al-Ta?if, Jiddah, Mecca and Madinah
Yathrib; the Kingdom of Jthe Abyssinians, the land of Beja, Aswan, Qus, Upper SacId; south of the land of Maghrib; until iLends at the Ocean [lit. “the surrounding sea”].
All the places mentioned here in Cand. are found in Tafhim, with the exception of “Sheba” and uSyene”. For the coupling of “Sheba” with “Saba”, as at Psalm 72.10, in the hand of a Christian author we probably need not look for a particular
For “Syene”, on the other hand, Barhebraeus probably had a particular source (see below).73
The corruption of such names as Kanauj and Baranasi into kbwg and yDrDnsy will be due either to an error on the part of an Arabic copyist or to misreading of
the Arabic on Barhebraeus9 part \p=^; <^L^ >
3.2. Moses b. Kepha
In his discussion of the “seven climes” Barhebraeus gives us brief comments on the conditions of the inhabitants of each clime. For these BakoS found closely-related
72 The same may be said of the addition of the “Sea of Reed” and “the Desert” in the Third Clime.
73 Ancient “Syene” is modern “Aswan”, so that BH in fact has a double entry here. Since BH elsewhere identifies the Cushites with the Abyssinians, we also have a double entry for these.
The coupling of Syene with Daibul is also curious, since the latter is in Sind and not in the “land of Cush”. A partial explanation of the confusion here is perhaps to be sought in a
misreading of a carelessly written as jjl^.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

passages in the Hexaemeron Commentary (= Hex.) of Moses b. Kepha. The likelihood that that work (or a work based on it) is the source of these accounts is raised by the fact that those place-names mentioned in Cand. but not in Birunfs
Tafltlm can almost invariably be found in Hex. These are particularly numerous in the Fourth and Fifth Climes.
Fourth Clime
Cand. 98.7-10 [underline: agreement with Taflum’, italic: with Hex.]: China, Media, Rayy, Babel, Hamadan, Mosul, Nisibis, Harran, Edessa, Mahbug, Beroea (Aleppo), Apamea, Crete, Cyprus, Rhodes, Seleucia, Emesa, Hamath, Tarsus, Mopsuestia, Antioch.
Taflum [Wright] 144.9-14: China, Tibet, Qitai, Khotan; Kashmir, Balur, Wakhan, Badakhshan, Kabul, Ghur, Herat, Balkh, Tokharistan, Merv, Kuhistan, Nishabur, Qumis, Jurjan, Tabaristan, Rayy, Qumm, Hamadan, Mosul, Azerbaijan, Manhij, Tarsus, Harran,
the Passes [al-thughur], Antioch; Cyprus, Rhodes, Sicily, Strait of Gibraltar.
Hex. [ms. Paris syr. 241, 169v-170r, tr. Schlimme (cf. n. 7 above) 564]: Emesa, Seleucia,
Cyprus, Crete, Apamea, Beroea, Edessa, Harran, Amida, Nisibis, Babel, Red, Media.
Fifth Clime
Cand. 99.2-6: I .and of Huns andJGog; land of Turkish tribes; Kashgar, Balasaghun, Samarkand, Bukhara, Khwarizm, Gate of Gates, Maipherkat, Armenia, Melitene, Great Rome, Constantinople, Athens, Thrace.
Taflum 144.14-145.4: LandLof Eastern Tltito and_nf_Gog and Magog [yajuj wa-majufl; Turkish trihes; Kashgar, Balasaghun, Thasht, Ferghana, Isbijab, Al-Shash, Ushrushna, Samarkand, Bukhara, Khwarizm, Sea of the Khazars, Gate of Gates [bab al-abwab], Bardaca, Mayyafariqin, Armenia, passes into Asia Minor, cities of Asia Minor, Great Rome, country of Galicians, Andalus.
Hex. 170r: Byzantium i.e. Constantinople, Great Rome, Athens, Thrace.
It will be seen that all the places mentioned in Hex. are found taken up in Cand.
Whether the addition of the three places which are mentioned in Cand. but not m
Tafltlm or Hex., namely Hamath, Mopsuestia and Melitene, is due to Barhebraeus himself or to some intermediate source is difficult to determine without further
study of the manner in which material derived from Hex. is used in Cand., but the intermediacy of a lost work, for example, of Dionysius b. SalibI remains a
74 Koffler (1932) 206 suggests as a possible major source for the whole of Cand. the theological treatises of Bar Salibi which are mentioned in a list of Bar Salibi’s works in ms. Vat. syr. 37 (olim Scandar 32; Asscmani, BO II.210b 32-41, 211a 22-30, cf. Baumstark, GSL 296 w. nn.
9,10, Blum, TRE IX.7.40-42). Since these treatises included a memra “on heaven, and on sun, moon and stars and other items according to the hexaemeral order”, there is a possibility that parti of Cand. Base II are based on that work. – Of the three additions here, the addition of Melitene would indeed be appropriate for Bar ?alibi who, like BH himself, was a native of that city, while Hamath and Mopsuestia, too, point at any rate to someone based in the western half of the Syriac Orthodox world (i.e. as opposed to “easterners” such Bar Kepha and Bar Shakko). – On the extensive use of Bar Kepha, Hex. in another work of Bar Salibi, the
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

3.3. Jacob of Edessa(?)
More significant among the places mentioned in Cand. but not in Taflum or Hex. are those in remoter areas, Meroe in the First Clime, Syene in the Second and Borysthenes, Sarmatia and “Garoud” (?) in the Seventh. Of these Moroe, Syene
and Borysthenes are found mentioned as places through which the various “parallels” pass in Ptolemy’s Almagest15 and are frequently named as places representative of their respective climes in subsequent works dealing with the “seven climes”.76 One account of the “parallels” where these three places, as well as “Sarmatia”, occur is in the Hexaemeron of Jacob of Edessa,77 and it so happens
that this passage of Jacob’s Hex. goes some way towards explaining the place-name rendered by Bakos as “Garoud”,78 so that one is led to suspect some connection here between Cand. and Jacob of Edessa’s work.79
3.4. Ptolemy, Almagest
For the latitudes of the climes, Barhebraeus does not use the values given by Birum, but goes back to the older values given by Ptolemy in his Almagest.
commentary on Genesis, see Schlimme (1977) 756-816.
75 Meroe for the 5th parallel, Syene (Soene, modern Aswan) for the 7th and Borysthenes (modern river Dniepr) for the 17th, Aim. 11.6, ed. Heiberg 106.9,107.13,111.1, tr. Toomer 84, 85, 87. –
Mention of Meroe and Borysthenes as the places at the southern and northern extremities of the climes may go back earlier to Eratosthenes (see Honigmann [1929] 13 et passim).
76 Honigmann (1929) passim (see index, s.vv.).
77 Jacob of Edessa. Hexaemeron, ed. Chabot 173b 20, 32, 174a 26-b 2; tr. Vaschalde 146f.; cf.
Honigmann (1929) 109f. – An account evidently based on Jacob of Edessa is also found in Jacob b. Shakko’s Book of Treasures (K. d-sTmdta), bk. 4, chap. 12. In this abbreviated account Meroe and Syene are duly mentioned but not Borysthenes (ms. Brit. Lib. Add. 7198, 63v bl464r al .a****; cf. Nau [18%] 304; Honigmann [1929] 111).
78 The text of the sentence mentioning Borysthenes and Sarmatia in Cand. is corrupt: ed. BakoS 101.1-3 (corr. ed. peek 79.6-9): rcvoia . c*u?dkc?tea K**aAim ttkun .*? /cosm
. . teuLxi po i^fOe^M . tCjo^KtfciKa [1 fosa BV, ?icek II 2 aiv^OMhosi B, ?icek; .aidhoMrte VII2-3 *^toa*?a “lo^p P; i^km**? cn^g ?icek II3 r^Kw** BII i^tosifOto VII vtv n- bk. ?icek ] (“In [the 7th clime] is that city called Borysthenes and the river in the inner region and Garud and [?] Sarmatia, inside <…> and it passes …”). Cf. Jacob,
Hexaemeron, 174a 26-b 2: vtffcutmsxi. wiiUwh*? k*bu l^o . rc\so\?i *o
cc^os^arc* (“in terra Sarmatarum et apud fluvium Borysthenem et in civitate Phanagoria”). One suspects some connection between the unintelligible words ?a\^ rc*as^K^\?<=> in
Cand. and Jacob’s Kria^gOK*, “Phanagoria”.
79 A different explanation needs to be sought for the association of Meroe (oc^tcn ) with Merris (ou^reo /MifOa ), the daughter of the Pharaoh (Cand. 95.10-11). One suspects here a rdle played by the transliteration of the word Meport in its genitive form, as found for example in a
letter of George of the Arabs (a**rten?t<** < 8ia Mepor^, Ryssel [1893] 23.1; cf. Honigmann [1929] 110).
80 BH tells us in his Chron. eccl. (11.443.19f.) that he commented on (shrd) the Almagest during
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

In the following table, I give, in addition to the valnes in the Almagest, Tafhlm and Cand., the values in Barhebraeus’ Ascensus mentis (Sulldqd hawndndyd), which was written well after Cand. in 1279, and in two of Naslr al-Din al-TusI’s (1201-1274) astronomical works, Risdlah-i muciniyyah, an early
work written in Persian, and Tadhkirah fi cihn al-hay3ah, a later work in Arabic. It will be seen here that Barhebraeus in his later work adopts the new values which were no doubt obtained by Tusi himself through his work at the observatory
in Maragha and are given by him in his Tadhkirah.
Latitudes of the Seven Climes
Ptolemy, Almagest II.6, ed. Heiberg 101-117, tr. Toomer 82-90; BTruni, Tafhlm, arab.
,ed. Wright 138//*re.ed.Huma,i I90;jmi,Mu^niyyah m.l,ed.Danishpazuh61-63sl;
Tadhkirah III.1.[8], ed. Ragep 251-253; BH, Cand., ed. BakoS 95-100; Ascensus n.i.8, ed. Nau 141f., tr. 127.
Almagest Tafhlm Muciniyyah Tadhkirah Cand. Ascensus 12;30? 12;39? 0? 12;40? 0? 12;40?
I 16;2r 16;39? 16;27?(/.k) 16;37,30? – 16;37,30? 20;14o 20-.270 20;12??(w^) 20-.270 20;14? 20-,27?
H 23;51? 24;40<a’2) 23;51?(UsO 24;5? – 24;40?(,lg3 27;12? 27;28? 27;12?(^/) 27;30? 27,12? 27;30?
m 30;22o 30;39o 30;22o(vTJ) 30-,40? – 30;40?
33;18? 33;3r 33,1^^) 33;37,30? 33;16?[sic] 33;37,30? IV 36;00? 36;21? 36;33?? (gl J) 36;22? – 36;22?
38;35? 38;54? 3%&(ijtf 38;54? 38;35? 38;54? V 40-.560 41;14? 40;56? (jir) 41;15? – 41;15?
his stay in Maragha in 1272/3. While the verb “shriT here is ambiguous, in the absenc known written work by BH on the Almagest, the sentence has been understood to mea BH “explained” these works orally (Gflttsberger [1900] 20 n.2; Nau [1899], traduction Hajji Khalifa mentions an epitome (mulakhkhas) of the Almagest composed for BH a behest by Muhyi al-Din al-Maghribi, an astronomer/mathematician who worked under al-Din al-Tusi “(Hajji Khalifa, Kashfal-yunun, s.v. JL*J\, ed. Fliigel, V.387.5-7,389.1-4; cf.
H. Suter [1900] 155; Wiedemann-Ruska [1928] 312; Barsaum, Lu’lu’ 426f., no. 22; Fiey [1975] 99; Takahashi (2001) n. 43).
81 The facsimile edition of Danishpazuh, besides being barely legible at some points in the copy available to me, is clearly corrupt in some of the values it gives.
82 Wright gives the value here as 24; 13? in his translation, while his Arabic manuscript appears to have 24;30? (J jtf). HumaTs Persian text, however, gives the value as 24;4? (> ?), as does
Wiedemann (1912) 11, who had access to the two Berlin mss. of the Arabic version (catal. Ahlwardt 5665 and 5666).
83 As explained by Ragep 471, the correct reading in the Tadhkira is apparently the more difficult minority reading: Vju du?3 ^jj^j ” (24 + 1/2 of 1/6 = 24;5?). The value in the
Ascensus here points to an early origin of the less satisfactory majority reading “^ju, uuij…” (24 + 1/2 + 1/6 = 24;40?), which is also followed later by Shfrazi and Jaghmini.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

VI vn
43;l?<n-84) 43;23?
43;51??(U^) 43;22,30? 43;15? 43;22,30? 45;45??(oo) 45;21? 45;21? 46;51?(l^) 47;12? 46;51? 47;12? 48;12??(wC.) 48;52,30? ca. 50? 50;20? [sic]
55;3??(c<u) 50;20?
45; 1? 46;51? 48;32? 50;4?
45;22? 47; 11? 48;52? 50;25?
4. Summary of Sources
Listed below are the sources for those parts of Cand. II.3.1.2 & II.3.1.4 dealing
with mineralogy/geology, geography and meteorology which have been identified so far.
Table 1: Sources of Cand. II.3.1.2 & II.3.1.4
<: based on. – ?: based indirectly on. – < x & y: based on x and y. – < x + y: mainly based on x, with elements taken from y.
AB: Abu’l-Barakat al-Baghdadi, K. al-muctabar, ed. Hyderabad; Aim.: Ptolemy, Almagest; BK: Bar Kepha, Hexaemeron Commentary, ms. Paris syr. 241; DM: Syriac
version of De mundo, ed. de Lagarde; Geog.: Ptolemy, Geography; JE: Jacob of Edessa, Hexaemeron, ed. Chabot; Mab.: Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, K. al-mabdhith al
mashriqiyyah, ed. Hyderabad; Nie.: Nicolaus, Compendium (see A.l. above); Olymp.: Olympiodorus, In Aristotelis Meteora commentaria, ed. Stiive; Olymp. arab.: Arabic version of Olymp., ed. Badawi; Shifa3: Ibn Sina, K. al-shifa0, Tabi’iyyat, fann 5, maqalah 1-2, ed. Montasiret al.; Tafhlm: Blruni: K. al-tafhlm li-awd^il sindcat al-tanjlm,
ed. Wright.
II.3.1.2: Earth (Bako? 82-104; Cicek 65-80): Its nature and form. – *Its colour.
Mountains: 83.11-84.4: < Mab. II.208.7-18 (< Shifa3 6.15-7.4). – 84.4-85.3: ? Dioscorides, De materia medica.
*Sand: 85.4-9: < Mab. II.209.9-12 (< Shifa3 8.15-9.2) +.
Metals and Minerals: 86.1-87.3: < Mab. 11.210.21-211.5 (< Shifa3 20.5-9); + Nic.
Origin of Metals: 87.4-88.1: < ?85 – 88.1-3: < Mab. II.213.3-7 (< Shifa5 21.15-19). – 88.3-11: < Mab. II.213.11-20 (< Shifa3 22.2-11). – 88.11-13: < ? (cf. Mab. 11.213.20 214.2; cf. Shifa3 22.11-15).
Origin of Minerals: 88.14-89.5: < Mab. II.214.3-16 (< Shifa3 20.15-21.9). – 89.5-10: <Nic. 58.3-8, 15-16,27-29.
Immobility of the earth: 89.11-91.2: < ?. – 91.2-5: < Mab. 11.111.1-2. – 91.5-10: <
84 The value “43; 15?” in Cand. follows the value prevalent in the Arabic manuscript tradition of the Almagest (see Toomer [1984] 86 n.43).
85 The saying that mercury and sulphur are the “parents” (abahay) of metals is repeated in sereval works of BH: Tegrat tegrata, ms. Cantab. Add. 2003, 57v 4; K. d-zalge, ms. Bodl. Or.
467, 6r 3-4; But. Min. 3.2.2. – cf. Biruni, K. al-jamdhir [Krenkow (1355 h.)] 229.17f.; Ikhwan al-Safan [Bustam (1957)] II. 121.3; Dimashqi, K. nukhbat al-dahr [Mehren (1866)] 56.7.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

Mab. II. 110.18-21.
Division of the earth: 91.11-92.10: < ?. – 92.10-93.5 (qubbat al-ard): Talhim 140.9-15. -933-13: cf. Tafhim 125.10-126.4.
Longitude and latitude: 93.1-6 (longitude): cf. Tafhim 126.8-127.3. – 9.3.6-9: Gatitude): cf. Tafhim 126.4-8.
Seven climes: 9410-12: cf. 92.6-7. – 94.12-14: ? Aim. II.1. – 94.12-95.2: ? Geog. 1.9. – 95.2-7: < Tafhim 125.5-9.
First clime: 95.8-10: ? Aim. II.6. – 95.10-11: ? JE 143? (+). – 95.11-96.1: < Tafhim 143.8-12. – 96.1-2: < BK 169v.
Second clime: 96.3-5: ? Aim. – 96.5-97.2: < Tafhim 143.12-144.2 (+ JE 143). – 97.2-3: < BK 169v.
Third clime: 97.5-7:? Aim. – 97.7-98.4: < Tafhim 144.3-9.
Fourth clime: 98.5-7: ? Aim. – 98.7-10: < Tafhim 144.9-14; + BK 170r. – 98.10-11: <BK170r.
Fifth clime: 98.12-99.2: ? Aim. – 99.2-6: < Tafhim 144.14-145.4; + BK 170r. – 99.6-7: < BK 170r.
Sixth clime: 99.8-10: ? Aim. – 99.10-100.2: < Tafhim 145.4-7. – 100.2-5: < BK 170r. -100.5: < Tafhim 145.8.
Seventh clime: 100.6-7: ? Aim. – 100.7-101.1: < Tafhim 145.8-9 & BK 170r. – 101.1-3: ? JE 174?. -1013-4: < Tafhim 145.9-11. – 101.4-5: BK 170r. -101.6-7: <
Tafhim 145.8-12 (+). – 101.7-102.2: -. Division of Noah: 1023-6: < Tafhim 141.3-5.
Division of Indians: 102.7-11: < Tafhim 142.2-3 and diagram.
Division of Persians (Afridun): 103.1-4: < Tafhim 141.1-3.
Another division of Persians: 103.5-9: < Tafhim 141.1 and diagram. Division of Greeks: 103.10-12: -. -103.12-104.8: < Tafhim 141.5-10.
II.3.1.4: Air (Bako? 109-130; Cicek 84-98): Its nature.
Cloud, rain etc.: 111.11 (heading): < Mab. H.172.16 (cf. Shifa3. 35.3, 39.10-11). – 111.11-112.2 (evaporation): cf. Mab. U. 172.3 (< Shifa9 39.2); cf. Arist 346b 23-26. – 11X2-4: < (Mab. U.19-21?). – 11X4-6 (cloud & rain): < Mab. H.173.3-4. – 11X6-8 (fog): < ?. – 11X8-113.2 (snow & hail): < Mab. H. 173.5-8. -1132-3 (hail contd.): <
Nic. 17.11-12 (cf. Arist. 348a 34-36). – 1133-7 (dew): < Mab. n.174.4-6. – 113.7-8 (frost): < (Mab. II.174.6). -113.8-10 (vqd): < DM 142.3-5 (< 394a 31-32). -113.10 (kokita): < DM 142.9-10 (< 394a 36-b 1). -113.10-11: < DM 142.11-13 (< 394b 3-5).” -113.12 (clear weather): < DM 141.25-26 (< 394a 22-23).
Halo: 114.1-4: < ?; + Nic. 48.23. – 114.4-5: < Nic. 48.5-6 (cf. Mab. H.180.14-17). – 1143-9: < Nic. 52.2-9 (< Arist. 373a 27-31). -1149-10: < Mab. n.180.3-6.
Rainbow: 114.11-115.4 (formation): < Mab. n.180.19-181.5 (+). -115.4-7 (colour): < Nic. 54.3-10? (< Arist. 374a 3-8). – 115.7-9 (shape): < ? (cf. Mab. 11.182.10-17,
Nic. 47.24-30 < Arist. 371b 26-29). – 115.9-1163: < Nic. 47.9-16 (< Arist. 372a
86 BakoS understood the passage as referring to a type of rain (“pluies violentes”). In the corresponding passage of De mundo we are talking about hail. Due to the omission of De
mundo syr. 142.10-11 (gr. 394b 1-3), we appear in Cand. to be talking about a type of snowstorm.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

*Mock-sun: 1164-9: < Mab. H.184.15-20 (cf. Shift3 56.3-5) + Mab. H.177.4-8 (<
Shift3 44.4-6)?. -116.9-12: < Nk. 48.7-11 (< Arist. 372a 10-16). – 116.12-117.1: < Mab. H.184.21-185.4.
*Rod: 1172-8: < Mab. II.186.16-187.2 (< Shift3 56.5-9,11-14).
Thunder and lightning: 117.9-118.1 (realities and appearances [sucrdne’/haggdge]): <
Nic. 47.3-5?; cf. DM 144.22-25 (< 395a28-32). -118.1-5 (thunder): < Mab. H.187.6-10 (cf. Shifa3 67.4-68.4). -118.6-10 (lightning): < Mab. 11.187.11-16 (cf. Shift3 68.4-8). -118.10-1193 (lightning seen before thunder): < Nic. 42.9-14 (< Arist. 369b 7-11) &
DM 144.5-12 (< 395a 16-21). -1193-4 (Emped. & Anaxag.): < Nic. 42.14-43.11, esp. 43.4-6 (< Arist. 369b ll-370a 10).87 -119.4.-5 (Clidemus): < Nic. 43.11-13 (<
Arist. 370a 10-12). -119.5-6: -.
Thunderbolt etc.: 119.7 (heading): paqcd < DM 144.15 etc.; keraunos, prester < Nic.
45.19 etc. -119.7-9: < Mab. H.188.2-5 (cf. Shift3 70.6ff.). -119.10-11 (arges): < Nic. 45.21-23 (< Arist. 371a 19-20,21-24). -119.11-120.1 (psol6eis): < Nic. 45.23-31
(< Arist. 371a 20-21, 24-29); cf. Mab. II.188.5-9. – 120.1-3: < Mab. II.188.9-11. – 1203-4 (keraun6s): cf. Nic. 45.19, 21 etc. – 120.4-6: < Mab. 11.188.15-17; + Nic. 45.31-46.8 (< Arist. 371a 16-7,29-b 2).
Shooting stars: 120.7-8 (heading): doki’des, lampaVies < Nic. 11.22f.?; + “belsusyatd …” < Mab. n.188.14. – 120.8-11: < Mab. 11.188.15-17 (< Shift3 68.13-15); + “sulphureous” < ? -120.11-12: < Nic. 12.2-3 (< Arist. 342a 3-5, 8-9). -120.12-13: < Nic. 12.3-4 (< Arist. 342a 10-11) + “columns” < AB 11.222.11-16, H.224.24-225.1?.
– 120.13-121.1: < Nic. 12.8-9 (< Arist. 342a 34-35). – 120.1-5: < lost passages of Nic? (< Arist. 342a 35-36, b 4-11,14-21).
Comets: 121.6 (heading): “kawkdbe susydne”< Nic. 12.11 etc. – 121.6-7: < Mab. II.189.2 (cf. Shift3 72.18ff.); + 11.188.15?. -121.7-9: < Mab. II.189.2-3 +; cf. Mab. II.189.15-190.4 (< Shift3 71.15-72.17). – 121.9-10: < Mab. II.189.3-5 (< Shift3 73.10-17) + -121.10-11 (red and black signs): < Mab. II.189.5-6 (cf. Shifa3 74.3-6). -121.11-113: < Mab. H.189.6-8. – 121.13-122.2 (Democritus etc.): < Nic. 12.11-12,
17-18 + lost passages? (< Arist. 342b 27-29,342b 29-343a 1). Conflagration: 1223-6: < Mab. II. 190.5-10. -122.6-8: -.
Milky way: 122.9-10 (Aristotle): < Nic. 14.17-18 (< Arist. 346b 5-6). – 122.10-12 (Democr. & Anaxag.): < lost passage of Nic? (< Arist. 345a 25-26). -122.12-1233 (refutation of Arist.): < lost passage of Nic? (cf. Nic. 14.19-22 [scholion]; < Olymp. in Mete. 74.17-76.5?). – 1233-6 (Pythagoreans): < Nk. 13.11-13 (< Arist 345a
13-16). -123.6-8 (contd.): < lost passage of Nk.? (< Arist. 345a 16-19).
Wind: 123.9-12 (cause of wind): < Mab. II.190.21-191.2 (cf. Shift3 58.6-7). – 123.12
1242 (another cause): < Mab. H.191.3-5 +. -1242-3 (Hippocrates): < Nk. 24.20-21 (cf. Arist. 349a 16-17); + “Stoics” < ?.88 – 1243-6 (dry years): < Nic? (cf. Nic.
87 The attribution of the view that thunder and lightning are appearances (haggage) to Emped. and Anaxag. may be due to a misunderstanding of Nk. 43.4-6, caused by the ambiguity of the Syriac verb hwd : Kaiuksa <uaiiit? kW . TAn r<a*=> rCmtoi ^Mm* Kara ai /^i aoJk
. kocd .km&uk /y**uuan (“Furthermore, these men say that lightning does not come into being but [merely] comes into view having been in existence beforehand” or “… lightning does not exist but [merely] appears cf. Arist. 369b 32f., 35f.: … evmdpxovta wpoxepov uorepov eKKpiveoBai Kai YiyveoOai,… ?or el Oatepa xoinrnv Ylyvexai akX &m,…).
88 An extra source needs to be assumed for the addition of “the Stoics”, who are not mentioned
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

26.10, Arist. 360a 33-b 5, Olymp. in Mete. 169.12-12-20, Olymp. arab. 116.25-117.3), cf. Mab. II.193.6, 9-10 (< Shifa3 59.17-19). – 124.6-8 (wind and rain): < Mab. II.193.5?, cf. Nic. 26.17-21. – 124*9 (rain helps wind): < Mab. H.193.KM2? (< Shifa3 59.19-60.1) + Nic. 25.23 (cf. Arist. 361a 19). – 124.10-125.1 (w. helps r.): <
Nic. 26.23-27 (cf. Mab. H.193.12-13 < Shifa3 60.3-4). – 125.1 (r. dismisses w.): < Nic. 26.22-23 (cf. Mab. H.193.8-10 < Shifa3 60.6-8). – 125.1-2 (w. dismisses r.): < Mab. n.193.7-8? (< Shifa3 60.8-9) + Nic. 26.20-21?.
*Whirlwind: 1253-7: < Mab. 11.193.17-21 + DM 143.26-27 (< 395a 7-8). -125.7-8: < DM 143.25-26 (< 395a 6-7). – 125*11: < Mab. H.194.2-3 (< Shifa3 61.1-2). –
125.11-12: < Mab. H.194.4-5 (< Shifa3 61.6-7; cl. Nic. 35.8-9 [scholion] < Olymp. 13.12-13).
*Wind directions: 126.1-127.5: < Mab. 11.194.10-17 (< Shifa3 61.12-17) & DM 142.30 143.19 (< 394b 19-35).
Earthquakes: 127.6-9 (cause of earthquake): < Mab. 11.205.19-21 + Nic. 37.9-10. – 127.10-128.1: Mab. H.206.2 & Nic. 40.7-8, 9-11 (< Arist. 368a 14-15). – 128.1-3: <
Nic. 40.3-7. – 1283-5: < DM 146.19-22 (< 396a 12-14). -128.5-7: < Nic. 38.22-23 (< Arist. 367a 4-9). -128.7-9: < DM 146.12-15 (< 396a 5-8). – 128.9-129.1: < Nic.
41.14-17 (< Arist. 368b 22-32). – 129,1-5: < Nic. 35.20-31 (< Arist. 365a 19-25+). – 129.5-7: < Nic. 36.13-16 (< Arist 365b 1-4). -129.7-9: < Nic. 36.21-23, 30 (< Arist. 365b 6-12). – 129.9-130.2: < Nic. 37.25-30 (< Arist. 366a 13-23). -130.2-3: < Nic. 38.1-8 (< Arist. 366b 2-7). -1303-4: < ?. – 130.4-5: < Nic. 38.10-12 (< Arist. 366b
Table 2: Order of Topics
12. Noah 13. Indians 14. Persians 15. Persians 16. Greeks
v. on extinction of fire
vi. conflagration [27] vii. wind [29-31]
IH.i. earth and water ii. inhabited world iii. climate
iv. uses of water
19-24: sea thunderbolt [24] 24-35: wind [29]
35-41: earthquake [32] raimbow [20] 41-43: thund/lightn. [23] halo [19]
Section 4: Air
17. Its nature
18. Cloud, rain etc.
46- 48: halo etc. “torches” etc. 48-52: halo [19]
52-54: rainbow [20] “sources” in Nic. – Cf. Actius III.7.2 and Aetius Srab., ed; Daiber (1980) 176.20.
v. earthquakes [32]
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to
43-45: whirlwind etc. [30] shoot star [25] 45- 46: thunderbolt etc. [24] comet [26]

19. Halo
20. Rainbow 21. Mock-sun 22. Lance
23. Thunder/ lightning 24. Thunderbolt etc.
25. Shooting stars 26. Comets
27. Conflagration 28. Milky way 29. Wind
30. Whirlwind
31. Directions of winds
32. Earthquakes
5. Conclusion
55-60: minerals
IV.i. stones
ii. mountains [3,4] iii. uses of mountains
iv. class, of minerals [5] v. metals
vi. format, of metals [6]
vii. other minerals [7]
viii. on alchemy ix. floods
One striking feature which emerges from the study whose results are summarised above is the heavy reliance Barhebraeus makes on non-Christian authors. In his discussion of mineralogy and meteorology he relies almost exclusively on three sources, K. al-mabdhith al-mashriqiyyah of the Muslim Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, and the Syriac versions of the De mundo and Nicolaus* Compendium, which are
works of pagan Greek authors. Similarly in his discussion of geography, he seems to rely mostly on the Muslim Biruni and the pagan Ptolemy. Among
Christian authors whom we might have expected Barhebraeus to use, Bar Kepha is used in the section on geography, but I have so far found no positive trace of
Bar Kepha’s work in the parts on mineralogy and meteorology and no trace, for example, of Bar Shakko’s works in any of the parts examined here.
Even if we allow for the fact that all the passages studied here belong, as stated in the introduction above, to the “philosophical/scientific”, as opposed to “dogmatic”, portions of Cand., the almost complete absence of quotations from
Christian authors is remarkable. One can here only speculate on the intentions behind Barhebraeus’ choice of his sources, but a partial explanation for the choice is probably to be sought in his desire to use the best scientific literature available. In using the works of Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, he was using the most up-to-date material available in the 13th century, while in turning to the Pseudo
Aristotelian De mundo and Nicolaus’ compendium of Aristotle, he was going back as close as he could to the Aristotelian sources.
Noteworthy also is the role given to the Mabdhith in the discussions of mineralogy and meteorology. A look at Table 1 above shows that under each subheading for
the individual mineralogical or meteorological phenomena, the first place is usually taken up by a passage taken from the Mabdhith. – Since in dealing with each phenomenon Barhebraeus usually begins with a discussion of how the phenomenon
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

is generated and then goes on to discuss what we might call the accidental
aspects of the phenomenon, this means that Barhebraeus usually accepts the
theory presented in the Mabdhith as the correct theory concerning the generation
of the phenomena. – A look then at Table 2 shows that the order in which the
various phenomena are treated in Cand. within the larger groupings of “mineralogy”
and “meteorology” agrees most closely with the order in the Mabdhith. Given
this agreement of order and the first place occupied by the Mabdhith under each
subdivision, one may assume that Barhebraeus has deliberately used the Mabdhith here as the framework around which to build his work.
It is known that Barhebraeus frequently takes an Arabic (occasionally also Persian) work as the model and framework around which to build his work. It has been pointed out how he follows the order of the material in Ghazali’s lhyd?
culum al-din in his Ethicon*9 and that of Ibn SIna’s K. al-shifd0 in his Butyrum sapientiae. Similar statements have been or could be made concerning his L splendorum(K. d-semhe) andZamakhshari’s K. al-mufassaf?\ his Ascensusmentis
(Sulldqd hawndndyd) and Tusi’s Tadhkira fi Him al-hay?a9i; his “Laughable stories”(K. d’tundyemgahhkdne)and AbuSacdMansural-Abi’s?. nathral-durr92;
the part on civil law in his Nomocanon (K. d-hudddye) and Ghazali’s K. al-wajir93; and his Tegrat tegrdtd and Ghazali’s Maqdsid al-faldsifah94 In our case Mabdhith
is not, of course, the model of the whole of Cand., but the manner in which
Barhebraeus uses Mabdhith here for smaller sections of Cand. is analogous to the way in which he uses these other Arabic works.
Rubens Duval in his history of Syriac literature suggested that Barhebraeus “sensed the approaching end of Syriac intellectual life and dreamed of erecting a monument summing up the past civilisation, rather than of opening up new paths for the future.”95 The more closely we look at Barhebraeus works, the more we come to realise how wrong this suggestion was. For what we find in Barhebraeus* works
is not a resume of the Syriac literature of the past, but an attempt at a fresh start.
In the early days of Islam, the Syriac-speaking Christians had been the teachers
of the Arabs; for it was largely through their translation work that philosophy and
89 Wensinck (1919) cxi-cxxxvi; Teule (1994) xxx-xxxii, 112-145.
90 Merx (1889) 231-268; cf.Moberg (1907) xii.
91 Nau (1899) traduction vii; cf. section 3.4 above.
92 Marzolph (1985) 81-125; cf. id. (1992) passim (see indices, 1.279,282, II.288f.).
93 Nallino (1922/3) 512-580 (= id [1942] 214-290). – On a similar relationship between BH Tegrat tegrdtd and Ghazali’s Maqdsid al-faldsifah, see Takahashi, “Barhebraeus und seine
islamischen Quellen”.
94 Takahashi, “Barhebraeus und seine islamischen Quellen…”
95 Duval (1907) 408. The view has often been repeated by others, e.g. Sbath (1920/1) 199; Janssens (1937) 3; Selis (1988), 70; Drossaart Lulofs-Poortman (1989) 38.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

science passed from the Greeks to the Arabs. Due to the progress of the sciences
under Islam, however, the roles had been reversed by the time we reach the 13th
century.96 Credit is due to Barhebraeus for having had the courage to acknowledge
this fact and having devoted his energy to transferring the knowledge now available in Arabic and Persian into the language of his people. Barhebraeus was not, of course, the first Syriac author to use Arabic sources – Bar Shakko, whose name
has been mentioned above, is particularly important as a precursor of Barhebraeus in this respect – but Barhebraeus stands quite alone in the scale on which he
ransacked Arabo-Persian sources and is unique also in the way he then attempts
to create a new synthesis out of the materials taken from these sources and the materials found in older Syriac literature. Barhebraeus was undoubtedly conscious of the fact that what he was attempting was something new and innovative and
this, no doubt, is what is on his mind when he mentions in his proem to Cand. his fear that “someone coming across this work for the first time might judge it to be something foreign to the priestly enclosures”.97
Western scholars have been fond of comparing Barhebraeus to great names
in European literature, such as Thomas Aquinas,98 Albertus Magnus,99 Pico della
Mirandola and Isidore of Seville.100 In the light of what we now know of his endeavours to render into the language of his people the knowledge which was available in his time in Arabic, along with what we have always known about his
mastery of Syriac prose, it is perhaps not so wide of the mark to compare him also to the one who once laid the foundations of Latin as a vehicle of scientific
discourse by rendering into his lucid and fluent prose the knowledge which was available to him in Greek. If Barhebraeus, a religious and political leader of his people, had been asked how he could compose his works with such speed, he
might have answered as the augur and former consul had done to his friend: “&rc6Ypa<|>a sunt, minore labore fiunt; verba tantum adfero, quibus abundo (They are mere transcripts, requiring less work. I just contribute the words, which I
96 For Barhebraeus’ own comment on the situation, see BH Chron. [Bedjan] 98.13-18: ‘There arose among them [sc. the Arabs] philosophers, mathematicians and physicians who surpassed the ancients in the subtlety of their intellect. Placing them not on another foundation but on
Greek basements, they perfected the buildings of the sciences, which were great on account of
their clear diction and their most studious investigations, so that we, from whom they received
knowledge through the translators – all of whom were Syrians – are now forced to ask them for it.”
97 Cand. proem [BakoS] 25.1: &u?a*t kw rttaa^gtiha <h=? *\ pa aarc ?l*a
98 Bore* (1834) 486; cf. Koffler (1932) 26 n. 5; Khoury (1950) 1.2, 122; id. (1965) 12; Kawerau (1972)63.
99 Renan (1852) 67; Baumstark, GSL 312.
100 Respectively, Leroy (1957) 230, and id. (1971) 250.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

have in plenty)”. In the period following that of Barhebraeus the language in which he wrote the majority of his works was not destined to have the fortune
enjoyed by the language of Cicero, but we are at least free to fantacise about the place Barhebraeus might have occupied in world literature if the history of the Syriac-speaking Christians had taken a different turn in the period following the
13th century.
101 Epistulae ad Atticum 12.52.3.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

ABO ‘l-BARAKAT Hibat Allah b. eAH b. Malka al-Baghdadi, al-Kitdb al-muctabarfi ‘l-hikma: ed. (?erefettin YALTKAYA), 3 vols., Hyderabad 1357-8 h.
AETIUS arab. = Arabic version of Placita philosophorum, ed./tr. Hans DAIBER, Aetius Arabus. Die Vorsokratiker in arabischer Oberlieferung, Wiesbaden 1980.
ARISTOTLE (= Arist.), Mete. = Meteorologica, ed. F.H. FOBES, Cambridge (Mass.) 1919; rep. Hildesheim 1967.
Pseudo-ARISTOTLE, De mundo syr. = Syriac version of De Mundo, ed. Paul de LAGARDE, Analecta syriaea, Leipzig 1858; rep. Osnabrttck 1967,134-158.
ASSEMANI [-us], Joseph Simonius, BO = Bibliotheca Orientalis Clementine- Vaticana, Romel719-28; rep. Hildesheim-New York 1975.
ASSEMANI, Stephanus Evodius (1742): Bibliothecae Mediceae Laurentianae et Palatinae codicum MSS orientalium catalogus, Florence.
AUDO, Thomas, Lex. = Simtd d-leshshdnd suryayd [Dictionnaire de la langue chaldiene], Mosul 1897; rep. Glane/Losser 1985.
BAKOS, Jan (1930-3): see “Barhebraeus, CandV
BARHEBRAEUS (= BH), Asc. = Ascensus mentis (Sulldqd hawndndyd), ed./tr. Francois
NAU, Le livre de Vascension de V esprit sur la forme du del et de la ierre. Cours
d’astronomie redigi en 1279 par Gregoire Aboulfarag, dit Bar-Hebraeus, 2 vols., Paris 1899.
.-, But. Min. & Mete. = Butyrum sapientiae (Hewat hekmtd), Books of Minerals and Meteorology, cited by chapter, section and “theoria”, unless otherwise indicated
from ms. Florence, Laur. or. 83.
Cand. as Candelabrum sanctuarii (Mndrat qudshe), ed. Yuliyos Yeshuc CI?EK,
Mnjdrat qudshe mettul shetese cedtdnayatd d-yadductdnd Bar cEbrdyd maprydnd d-madnhd, Glane/Losser 1997. – tr. Diyunlsiyus Bihnam JIJAWl, Mandrat al-aqdds li-l-calVamah Mar Ghrighuriyus Abl *l-Faraj Ibn al-cIbfi mafiiyan al-mashriq 1226
1286, Aleppo 19%. – Bases I-II, ed. J?n BAKO?, Le candtlabre des sanctuaires de Grigoire Aboulfaradj dit Barhebraeus (PO 22/4,24/3), Paris 1930-3. – The references
above, unless otherwise indicated, are to BakoS’s edition, cited by the continuous
pagination given to the two fascicles.
Carm. = Poems: ed. P. Y. DOLABANI, Mushhdtd d-Mdr Grigoriyos Yohanndn Bar
cEbrdyd maprydnd d-madnhd. Diwdn al-calldmah al-kabir wa-l-shdcir al-shahir al-faytasuf al-surydni Mar Ghrighuriyus Yuhannd Ibn al-clbri mafiiyan al-mashriq, Jerusalem 1929; rep. Glane/I^osser 1983.
Chron.= Chronicon/Chronography,ed. Paul BEDJAN GregoriiBarhebraeiChronicon
syriacum. Ktdbd d-maktbdnut zabne d-sim l-Mdr Grigoriyos Bar cEbrayd, Paris 1890.
Chron. eccl. = Chroncion ecclesiasticum, ed. Joannes Baptista ABBELOOS &
Thomas Josephus LAMY, Gregorii Barhebraei Chronicon ecclesiaticum. Ktdbd
d-eqlesiyastiqi d-sim l-Mdr Grigoriyos maprydnd d-madnhd 2 parts (3 vols.), Louvain 1872-7.
K. d-zalge, ms. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Or. 467. Muntakhabkitdbjdmical-mufraddt,ed. M. MEYERHOFF&G.P. SOBHY, Muntakhab
kitdb jdmic al-mufraddt li-Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid al-Ghdfiqi al-mutawqffd fi nahw sanah 560 h? intakhabahu Abu ‘l-Faraj Ghrighuriyus al-macruf bi Ibn al-clbri al-mutawaffd fi sanah 684 h. [The Abridged Version of “The Book of Simple
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

Drugs” of Ahmad Ibn Muhammad al-Ghafiqi by Gregorius Abu’l-Farag
(Barhebraeus)], vol. 1, fasc. 1-4 (no more published), Cairo 1932-40; rep. Frankfurt 1996.
-, Nomocanon(K. d-hudddye), ed. Paulus BEDJAN, Nomocanon Gregorii Barhebraei, Paris-Leipzig 1898. – ed. Y.Y. ?I?EK, Huddaye mettul qanone cedtanaye w-ndmdse calmanaye men syame d-abun yadductand Mar Grigoriyos Yohanndn mapryand
mshabbhd d-madnhd d-cedta surydyta trisat shubhd d-Antiyok [Nomocanon ofBar
Hebraeus], Glane/Losser 1986.
-, Sermo sapientiae (Swdd sopiya), ed. Hermann F. JANSSENS, L’entretien de la
sagesse, Introduction aux oeuvres philosophiques de Bar Hebraeus, Li&ge 1937. -, Tegrat tegrdtd, ms. Cambridge, University Library, Add. 2003.
BAR KEPHA, Moses, Hex. = Hexaemeron Commentary, mss. Paris, Bibliothfeque nationale, syr. 241; ibid. syr. 311. – tr. Lorenz SCHLIMME, Der
Hexaemeronkommentar des Moses bar Kepha (Gottinger Orientforschungen 1/14), 2 vols., Wiesbaden 1977.
BAR SHAKKO, Severus Jacob, Thes. = Book of Treasures, ms. British Library, Add. 7193; cf.Nau (1896).
-, Dial. = Book of Dialogues, ms. Gottingen, Universitatsbibliothek, or. 18c; cf. Ruska (1896), id. (1897).
BARSAUM, [Patr.] Ighnatiyus Afram I, Lu?lu0= Al-lu’lu3 al-manthurfitdrikh al-culum
wa-l-dddb aUsurydniyyah [Histoire des sciences et de la litterature syriaque], rep. Glane/Losser 1987.
BAUMSTARK, Anton, GSL = Geschichte der syrischen Literatur mit Ausschlufi der christlich-paldstinensischen Texte, Bonn 1922; rep. Berlin 1968.
al-BIRUNI, Abu ‘l-Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad, K. al-jamdhir, ed. F. KRENKOW, Kitdb ahjamdhirft ma crifat al-jawdhir min tasnifal-ustddh Abi ‘l-Rayhdn Muhammad
ibn Ahmad aUBirum, Hyderabad 1355 h.
-, Tafhlm = Kitdb al-tafhim li-awd^il sindcat al-tanjlm (Arabic), ed./tr. R. Ramsay
WRIGHT, The Book of Instruction in the Elements of the Art of Astrology by Abufl-Rayhdn Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni, London 1934. – The page and line
references are to the Arabic text (= photographic reproduction of ms. Brit. Lib. Or
8349) given on unnumbered pages opposite the numbered pages containing the English translation.
-, Tafhlm pers. = Persian version of Tafhlm, ed. Jalal HUMA3I, Kitdb al-tafhim li-awa?il sindcat al-tanjim ta?llfi ustddh Abu Raihdn Muhammad b. Ahmad Biruhi
dar sal 420 hsh., Teheran 1316 h.
BOR?, Eug&ne (1834): “Analyse de l’ouvrage de Bar-Hebraeus intitule Lu* le
Flambeau des saints”, JA 2e s6x. 14.481-508.
BROCK, Sebastian P. (1997): A Brief Outline of Syriac Literature (Moran Etho 9),
CARDAHI, Gabriel [Jibra3il al-Qardahi], Lobab = Al-Lobab, seu Dictionarium syro
arabicum, 2 vols., Beirut 1887-91.
DAIBER, Hans (1992): ‘The Meteorology of Theophrastus in Syriac and Arabic Translation”, in ed. W. W. Fortenbaugh & D. Gutas, Theophrastus, His Psychological, Doxographical, and Scientific Writing (Rutgers University Studies in Classical Humanities 5), New Brunswick-London, p. 166-293.
al-DIMASHQl, Shams al-Din Abu cAbd Alia Muhammad, K. nukhbat al-dahr ft cajd?ib al-barr wa-l-bahr, ed. A.F. MEHREN, Cosmographie de Chems-ed-Din
Abou Abdallah Mohammed ed-Dimichqui, St. Petersburg 1866.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

DIOSCORUS GABRIEL of B ARTELLI, bishop of Gazarta d-Qardu, metrical biography of Barhebraeus, ed. Yuliyos Yeshuc ?I?EK, Memrd cci qaddishd Grigoriyos
maprydnd d-hu Bar cEbrdya da-cbid I Diydsqdrds Eplsqopd d-Gdzartd mdittd d
Qardu shnat 1286 m., Glane/Losser 1985.
DOLABANI, Philoxenus Yuhanna (1994a): ed. G.Y. Ibrahim, Fihris makhtutdt Dayr
Mar Marqus. Mhawwydnd da-ktdbe srite d-bet arke d-Dayrd d-Mdr Marqds – Orishlem. Catalogue of Syriac Manuscripts in St. Mark*s Monastery (Dairo dMor
Marqos) (Syriac Patrimony 8), Aleppo.
- (1994b): ditto, Fihris makhtutdt Dayr al-Zacfardn. Mhawwydnd da-ktdbe srite d-bet
arke d-Dayrd d-Mdr Hannanyd – Zacfardn. Catalogue of Syriac Manuscripts in
Za’faran Monastery (Dairo dMor Hananyo) (Syriac Patrimony 9), Aleppo.
- (1994c): ditto, Fahdris makhtutdt surydniyyah. Mhawwydnd da-ktdbe srite d-bet arke
d-dayrdtd w-ceddtd surydydtd da-b-madnhd. Catalogue of Syriac Manuscripts in Syrian Churches and Monasteries (Dairotho w ‘Idotho Suryoyotho) (Syriac Patrimony
10), Aleppo.
DOLABANI, P.Y./ Ren6 LAVENANT, Sebastian BROCK & Samir Khalil SAMIR
(1994d): “Catalogue des manuscrits de la bibliotheque du Patriarcat Syrien Orthodoxe
a Horns (Auj. a Damas)”, Parole de VOrient 19.555-661.
DROSSAART LULOFS, Hendrik Joan (1965): Nicolaus Damascenus on the Philosophy
of Aristotle (Philosophia Antiqua 13), Leiden.
- (1985): “Aristotle, Bar Hebraeus and, Nicolaus Damascenus on Animals”, in Allan
Gotthelf (ed.), Aristotle on Nature and Living Things. Philosophical and Historical
Studies Presented to David M. Balme on his Seventieth Birthday, Pittsburgh-Bristol, 345-357.
-, & E.L.J. POORTMAN (1989): Nicolaus Damascenus. De plantis. Five Translation, (Aristoteles Semitico-Latinus 4), Amsterdam-Oxford-New York.
DUVAL, Rubens (1907): La littirature syriaque, 3rd ed., Paris 1907; rep. Amsterdam 1970.
ETH?, Hermann (1868): Zakarija Ben Muhammed Ben MahmOd el-Kazwtni’s Kosmographie. Die Wunder der Schdpfung, Erster Halbband, Leipzig.
FAKHR AL-DlN Muhammad b. cUmar AL-RAZl, Mabdhith = K. al-mabahith al mashriqiyyah fi cilm al-ildhiyydt wa-l-tabtciyyat, ed. Hyderabad 1343 h.
FIEY, Jean-Maurice (1975): Chretiens syriaques sous les mongols (CSCO 362, subs. 44), Louvain.
– (1986): “Esquisse d’une bibliographic de Bar Hebraeus (+1286)”, Parole de lfOrient 13.279-312.
FURLANI, Giuseppe (1924): “BruchstUcke einer syrischen Paraphrase der ?Elemente? des Eukleides”, ZeitschriftfiirSemitistik 3.27-52.
GARBERS, Karl, & Jost WEYER (1980): Quellengeschichtliches Lesebuch zur Chemie und Alchemie der Araber im Mittelalter, Hamburg.
al-GHAZALl, Abu Hamid Muhammad, Maqdsid al-faldsifah, ed. Sulaiman DUNYA, Muqaddimat Tahdfut al-faldsifah al-musammdt Maqdsid al-faldsifah li-l-imdm al
Ghazdii (Dhakha’ir al-cArab 29), Cairo 1961.
GIESE, Alma (1986): Al-Qazwtni. Die Wunder des Himmels und der Erde (BiWiothek
arabischer Klassiker 11), Stuttgart-Vienna.
GILBERT, Otto (1907): Die meteorologischen Theorien des griechischen Altertums,
Leipzig; rep. Hildesheim 1967.
GOTTSBERGER, Johann (1900): Barhebrdus und seine Scholien zur heiligen Schrift,
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

GRAF, Georg, GCAL = Geschichte der christlichen arabischen Literatur, 5 vols. (Studi
_e Testi 118, 133, 146,147,172), Vatican City, 1944-1951.
HAJJI KHALIFA, Kashf al-zjunun, ed. Gustavus FLUEGEL, Lexicon bibliographicum
et encyclopaedicum a Mustafa ben Abdallah Katib Jelebi dicto et nomine Haji
Khalfa celebrato compositum, 7 vols., Leipzig-London 1835-58; rep. New York London 1964.
HOFFMANN, Andreas Theophilus (1827): Grammaticae syriacae libri III, Halle. HONIGMANN, Ernst (1929): Die sieben Klimata unddie Kokeigematvioi, Heidelberg. HUNAIN b. ISHAQ al-cIbadi, Comp. = Jawdmic li-kitdb Aristdtdlis fi ‘l-dthdr al
culwiyyah9 ed. Hans DAIBER, Ein Kompendium der aristotelischen Meteorologie in der Fassung des Hunain Ibn Ishdq (Aristoteles Semitico-Latinus, Prolegomena et Parerga 1), Amsterdam-Oxford 1975.
IBN al-BITRIQ, Abu Zakariyya3 Yahya, Arabic version of Arist. Mete., ed. Casimir PETRATI1S, Beirut 1967. – ed. Pieter L. SCHOONHEIM, Aristotle’s Meteorology
in the Arabico-Latin Tradition (Aristoteles Semitico-Latinus 12), Leiden 2000.
IBN SINAL Abu CAH al-Husain, Danish-namah-i cAla% Tabi’iyyat, ed. Muhammad MISHKAT, Tabiciyyat-i Danish-namah-i cald?u tasnif-i Shaykh-i ra?ls Abu cAli
Sind, Teheran 1371 h./1331
-, Shifd* Min., Mete. = K. al-shifd0, TabHyyat, fann 5, maqalah 1-2, ed. cAbd el-Halun
MONTASIR et al., Ibn Sind. Al-Shifa\ La Physique V. Les Metaux et la Meteorologie, Cairo 1384 h71964.
IBN TIBBON, Samuel, Hebrew version of Arist, Mete., ed. Resianne FONTAINE, Otot ha-Shamayim, Samuel Ibn Tibbon’s Hebrew Version of Aristoteles Meteorology
(Aristoteles Semitico-Latinus 8), Leiden-New York-Cologne 1995.
IKHWAN al-SAFA3, Rasd0il: ed. Butrus BUSTANl, Beinit 1957. – partial tr. Friedrich DDETERICI, Die Philosophic der Araber im IX. und X. Jahrhundert n. Chr. aus der
Theologie des Aristoteles, den Abhandlungen Alfdrdbis und den Schriften der Lautern
Brudery Funftes Buch. Die Naturanschauung und Naturphilosophie, 2nd ed., Leipzig 1876.
JACOB of EDESSA, Hex. = Hexaemeron, ed. J.-B. CHABOT, laeobi Edesseni Hexaemeron seu in opus creationis libri septem (CSCO ss. syr. ser. II. torn. LVI,
Textus), Paris 1928; rep. Louvain 1953 (CSCO 92, syr. 44). – tr. A. VASCHALDE, laeobi Edesseni… (CSCO ss. syr. ser. II. torn. LVI, Versio), 1932; rep. 1953 (CSCO 97, syr. 48).
JOB of EDESSA, Book of Treasures, edVtr. Alphonse MINGANA, Encyclopaedia of Philosophical and Natural Sciences as Taught in Baghdad about A.D. 817 or Book
of Treasures by Job ofEdessa (Woodbrooke Scientific Publications 1), Cambridge 1935.
JANSSENS, Herman F. (1937): see under “Barhebraeus, Sermo sapientiae”. KAWERAU, Peter (1972): Das Christenheit des Ostens (Die Religionen der Menschheit
30), Stuttgart.
KHOURY, Joseph (1950): “Une synthfese de christologie jacobite: la ‘quatrifeme base’
du ‘Candllahre des sanctuaires’ de Gr^goire Aboulfaradj dit Barhebraeus”, Diss. Institut Catholique de Paris.
– (1965): Le candilabre du sanctuaire de Grtgoire Aboulfaradj dit Barhebraeus. Quatriime base: de VIncarnation (PO 31/1) Paris.
KOFFLER, Hubert (1932): Die Lehre des Barhebrdus von der Auferstehung der Leiber, Rome.
LEROY, Jules (1957): Moines etmonastires du Proche-Orient, Paris.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

– (1971): “La renaissance de Tfiglise syriaque au Xlle-XIIIe sifecles”, Cahiers de civilisation medievale 14.131-148,239-255.
LETTINCK, Paul (1999): Aristotle’s Meteorology and its Reception in the Arabic World. With an Edition and Translation oflbn Suwdr’s Treatise on Meteorological Phenomena and Ibn Bdjja’s Commentary on the Meteorology (Aristoteles Semitico
Latinus 10), Leiden-Boston-Cologne.
MARGOLIOUTH, David Samuel (1887): Analecta orientalia adPoeticam aristoteleam,
London; rep. Hildesheim-ZUrich-New York 2000.
MARZOLPH, Ulrich (1985): “Die Quelle der Erg5tzlichen Erzahlungen des Bar Hebraus”, Oriens Christianus 69.81-125.
– (1992): Arabia ridens. Die humoristische Kurzprosa derfrtihen adab-Literatur im internationalen Traditionsgeflecht, 2 vols., Frankfurt
MERX, Adalbertus (1889): Historia artis grammaticae apud Syros, Leipzig.
MOBERG, Axel (1907): Buck der Strahlen. Die grdssere Grammatik des Barhebrdus,
Einleitung und zweiterTeil, Leipzig.
NALLINO, Carlo Alphonso (1922/3): “II diritto musulmano nel Nomocanone siriaco
cristiano di Barhebreo”, RSO 9.512-580; rep. with corrections in id., Raccolta di scritti editi e inediti, vol. 4, Rome 1942,214-290.
NAU, Francois (18%): “Notice sur le Livre des Tr&ors de Jacques de Bartela, ?v?que de Tagrit”, JA 9e s6r. 7.286-331.
– (1899): see under “Barhebraeus, Asc.”
– (1910): “La cosmographie au Vile sifccle chez les Syriens”, ROC 15.225-254. OLYMPIODORUS (= Olymp.), in Mete. = In Aristotelis Meteora commentaria, ed.
Guilelmus STOVE, Berlin 1900 (CAG XII/II).
-, in Mete. arab. = (so-called) Arabic version of in Mete. (Tqfsir Ulimfidurus li-kitdb
Aristdtdlis fi l-dthdr al-culwiyyah\ ed. 0Abdurrahman BADAWl, Commentaires sur Aristote perdus en grec et autres ipttres, Beirut 1971, 83-192.
PAYNE SMITH, R., Thes. syr. = Thesaurus Syriacus, 2 vols., Oxford 1879-1901. PLOEG, J.P.M. van der (1983): The Christians of St. Thomas in Southern India and
their Syriac Manuscripts (Placid Lecture Series 3), Bangalore.
PTOLEMY, Claudius, Aim. = Almagest/MaenjiariKTj ovvra^ig: ed. J.L. HEIBERG,
Claudii Ptolemaei opera quae exstant omnia, voL /. Syntaxis mathematica, 2 parts, Leipzig 1898-1903. – tr. G.J. TOOMER, Ptolemy’s Almagest, New York 1984.
al-QAZWINi, Zakariyya3 b. Muhammad b. Mahmud, cAjaHb = K. ‘ajd’ib al-makhluqdu ed. Ferdinand WOSTENFELD, Zakarija Ben Muhammed Ben Mahmud el-Cazwini’s
Kosmographie, ErsterTheil: Kitdb caja?ibal-makhluqdt(Die Wunder der Schdpfung),
Gottingen 1849.
REN AN, Ernest (1852): De philosophia peripatetica apud Syros commentatio historica, Paris.
RUSKA, Julius (18%): “Das Quadrivium aus Severus Bar SakkG’s Buch der Dialoge”, Diss. Heidelberg.
– (1897): “Studien zu Severus bar Sakkfl’s ‘Buch der Dialoge”‘, ZA 12.8-41,145-161. RYSSEL, Victor (1880): Uber den textkritischen Werth der syrischen Obersetzungen
griechischer Klassiker, I. Theil, Leipzig.
- (1893): “Die astronomischen Briefe Georgs des Araberbischofs”, ZA 8.1-55.
de SACY, Silvestre (1826-7): Chrestomathie arabe, ou extraits de divers icrivains arabes tant en prose qu ‘en vers, 3 vols., 2nd ed., Paris.
SAUMA, Assad (1998): “Commentary on the ‘Biography’ of Bar Hebraeus”, ARAM
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

(Stockholm: Arameiska Akademikernas Forbund) 7.35-68.
SBATH, Paul (1920/1): “Manuscrits orientaux de la bibliothfcque Asbat”, ROC 22.194
SCHLIMME, Lorenz (1977): see under “Bar Kepha”.
SCHROTER, R. (1857): Gregorii Bar-Hebraei scholia in Psalmum VIII, XL, XU, L,
Diss. Bratislava, Bratislava.
SEGERT, Stanislav (1965): “Das wissenschaftliche Werk von Jin BakoT, in id. (ed.),
Studia semitica philologica necnon philosophica Ioanni BakoS dicata, Bratislava, 13-21.
S6LIS, Claude (1988): Les Syriens orthodoxes et Catholiques, Turnhout
SEMYONOV, A.A. [et al.] (1952-87): Sobranie vostodnych mkopisej Akademii nauk
Uzbekskoj SSR, 11 vols., Tashkent.
SHERWOOD, P. (1957): “Le fonds patriarcal de la bibliothfeque manuscrite de Charfet”, OS 2.93-107.
SIDARUS, Adel Y. (1975): Ibn al-Rahibs Leben und Werk. Ein koptisch-arabischer Enzyklopddistdes 7.113. Jahrhunderts (Islamkundliche Untersuchungen 36), Freiburg.
SONY, Behnam(1993): Fihris makhtutat al-Batriyarkiyyah fi Dayr al-Sharfah – Lubndn [Le catalogue des manuscrits du Patrarcat au Couvent de Charfet – Liban], Beirut.
SUTER, Heinrich (1900): Die Mathematiker und Astronomen der Araber und ihre
Werke (Abh. z. Gesch. d. mathematischen Wissenschften 10), Leipzig; rep. Amsterdam 1981.
TAKAHASHI, Hidemi (2001): “Simeon of QaTa Rumaita, Patriarch Philoxenus Nemrod
and Bar cEbroyo”, Hugoye: Journal ofSyriac Studies ( 4/1.
– (2002): “Syriac Fragments of Theophrastean Meteorologyand Mineralogy – Fragments in the Syriac version of Nicolaus Damascenus, Compendium of Aristotelian Philosophy
and accompanying scholia”, in W. Fortenbaugh & G. Wohrle (ed.), On the Opuscula ofTheophrastus, Akten der3. Tagung derKart-und-Gertrud-Abel-Stiftung vom 19.-23. Juli 1999 in Trier, Stuttgart, p. 189-225.
-, “Barhebraeus und seine islamischen Quellen. T6grat t?grata (Tractatus tractatuum) und Gazalis Maqasid al-falasifa”, to be published in M. Tamcke (ed.), Zur Geschichte, Theologie, Liturgie und Gegenwartslage dersyrischen Kirchen. Ausgewahlie Vortrdge des 2. deutschen Syrologen-Symposiums vom Juni 2000 in Wittenberg (Studien zur
Orientalischen Kirchengeschichte 17), Munster-Hamburg-London, 2002.
TEULE, Herman G.B. (1993): Gregory Barhebraeus.Ethkon(Memrd I)(CSC0534-535,
syr. 218,219), Louvain.
al-TUSI, Nasir al-Din: Risdlah-i muciniyyah [= RA hay3ah], facsimile ed. Muhammad
Taqi DANISHPAZOH, Al-risdlah al-muciniyyah az Khwdjah-i Tusi (Intishantt-i
Danishgah-i Tihran 300), Teheran 1355 hsh.
-, Tadhkirah – al-Tadhkirah fi Him al-hay?ah [= al-Tadhkirah al-nasiriyyah\, edVtr.
F.J. RAGEP, Nasir al-Din Tusi’s Memoir on Astronomy (al-Tadhkira fi Him al-hay’a), 2 vols., New York-Berlin-Heidelberg 1994.
ULLMANN, Manfred (1972): Die Natur- und Geheimwissenschafien in Islam (HdO 1. Abt., Erg. VI/2), Leiden.
WAGNER, Ewald, & Peter STEINMETZ (1964): Der syrische Auszug der Meteorologie des Theophrast, Wiesbaden.
WEHRLI, Fritz (1950): Die Schule des Aristoteles V. Straton von Lampsakos, Basel. WENSINCK, Arent Jan (1919): Bar Hebraeus9 Book of the Dove, together with some
chapters from his Ethikon, Leiden.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to

WICKENS, G.M. (1962): “Nasir ad-Din Tusi on the Fall of Baghdad: A Further Study5*, Journal of Semitic Studies 7.23-35.
WIEDEMANN, Eilhard (1912): “Beitrage zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften XXVII”, Sitzungsberichte der Physikalisch-Medizinischen Societdt zm Erlangen 44.1-40; rep. in id. (ed. W. Fischer), Aufsdtze zur arabischen Wissenschqftsgeschichte, HidesHeim 1970,1.776-815.
– [J. Ruska] (1928): “Beitrage zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften LXXVIII. Nasir al Din al TQsi”, Sitzungsberichte der Physikalisch-Medizinischen Societdt zu Erlangen 60.289-316; rep. in id. Aufsdtze II. 701-728.
WRIGHT, William (1894): A Short History of Syriac Literature, London 1894.
-, & Stanley Arthur COOK (1901): A Catalogue of the Syriac Manuscripts Preserved
in the Library of the University of Cambridge, Cambridge.
ZONTA, Mauro (1992): Fonti greche e orientali delV Economic di Bar-Hebraeus nelV
opera “La crema delta scienza”, Naples.
- (1998): “Structure and Sources of Bar-Hebraeus’ ‘Practical Philosophy* The Cream
of Wisdom”, in R. Lavenant (ed.), Symposium Syriacum VII (OCA 256), Rome, 279-292.
This content downloaded from on Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:24:26 UTC All use subject to